Applying the 3M Model of Personality and Motivation to Adventure Travelers

Paige P. Schneider, Christine Vogt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

More than a decade has passed since the Travel Industry Association investigated adventure travel as a promising market. Despite growth in the adventure industry, studies of adventure travelers remain scarce, particularly in the identification of the psychological underpinnings of consumer adventurers. Mowen's (2000) 3M Model of Motivation and Personality provided an organizing framework to explain the psychological roots of adventure tourism behavior. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a random sample (N = 1000) of National Geographic Adventure magazine subscribers with a response rate (n = 339) of 34%. Guttman Scaling Procedure was employed to categorize respondents in hard and soft adventure traveler categories as a context for understanding the demographic and travel behavior characteristics. The personality trait interest in cultural experiences was a consistent predictor of adventure travel propensity for hard and soft adventure traveler groups. The traits need for arousal and need for material resources were significant predictors for the hard adventure traveler group, while competitiveness was the other trait found to be a significant predictor for the soft adventure traveler group. Findings of this study enhance knowledge and understanding of the relationship between personality and tourism behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-716
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

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personality
travel
tourism
Tourism
Industry
travel behavior
industry
Group
personality traits
scaling
competitiveness
magazine
random sample
market
questionnaire
resource
resources
Travellers
experience
need

Keywords

  • 3M Model
  • adventure travelers
  • Guttman scaling
  • personality
  • travel propensity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation

Cite this

Applying the 3M Model of Personality and Motivation to Adventure Travelers. / Schneider, Paige P.; Vogt, Christine.

In: Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2012, p. 704-716.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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