While there have been significant advances in the field of modeling solidification and refining of metals and alloys there has been a paucity of accurate data for verification of the model predictions. The reason for this has been the difficulties posed by the high temperatures involved, containment of reactive molten metals and problems with radiation from the metal surfaces. Another difficulty has been the lack of in situ observations with a concomitant scarcity of information on the kinetics of the processes. Classically, characterization techniques have focused upon discerning the final structure at higher and higher resolutions with electron microscopical equipment, which often only allow a posteri observations. Recently however, thanks to technological advancements, there exists a growing array of experimental tools that allow the study high temperature metallurgical processes such as melt refining and solidification in situ. This paper reviews research carried out at the Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research on applying a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) equipped with a high temperature stage to elucidate different phenomena relevant to iron-making, steel melt refining, casting and hot-deformation and annealing.