Previous experiments had shown that two human monoclonal antibodies (huMAbs) directed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enhanced HIV-1 infection in vitro (Robinson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87:3185-3189, 1990). This complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE) of HIV-1 infection caused 12-fold increases in reverse transcriptase released from MT-2 cells. In the study reported here, it was demonstrated that both of these huMAbs, 86 and V10-9, bound to an immunodominant peptide in gp41 (amino acids 586 to 620). This peptide blocked C'-ADE of HIV-1 infection in vitro regardless of whether huMAb 86 or human polyclonal anti-HIV was used as the source of anti-HIV antibody. Blockade of enhanced infections was characterized by decreases in antigen synthesis, cytopathic effect, and reverse transcriptase release. The ability of the huMAbs to enhance infection was determined to be dependent upon specific peptide reactivity and not dependent upon immunoglobulin subclass, complement fixation, or gross antigen reactivity. Since the peptide to which enhancing antibodies bind is immunodominant and does not bind neutralizing antibodies, it may be worthwhile to investigate delection of this 35-amino-acid peptide from candidate anti-HIV vaccines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science