Antibiotic-induced alterations in the gut ecosystem increases the susceptibility to Candida albicans, yet the mechanisms involved remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice treated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefoperazone promoted the growth, morphogenesis and gastrointestinal (GI) colonization of C. albicans. Using metabolomics, we revealed that the cecal metabolic environment of the mice treated with cefoperazone showed a significant alteration in intestinal metabolites. Levels of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols and primary bile acids increased, whereas carboxylic acids and secondary bile acids decreased in antibiotic treated mice susceptible to C. albicans. Furthermore, using in-vitro assays, we confirmed that carbohydrates, sugar alcohols and primary bile acids promote, whereas carboxylic acids and secondary bile acids inhibit the growth and morphogenesis of C. albicans. In addition, in this study we report changes in the levels of gut metabolites correlated with shifts in the gut microbiota. Taken together, our in-vivo and in-vitro results indicate that cefoperazone-induced metabolome and microbiome alterations favor the growth and morphogenesis of C. albicans, and potentially play an important role in the GI colonization of C. albicans.
- Candida albicans
- Gastrointestinal colonization
- Hyphal formation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology