Anionic Lipids Confine Cytochrome c2 to the Surface of Bioenergetic Membranes without Compromising Its Interaction with Redox Partners

Chun Kit Chan, Abhishek Singharoy, Emad Tajkhorshid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cytochrome c2 (cyt. c2) is a major element in electron transfer between redox proteins in bioenergetic membranes. While the interaction between cyt. c2 and anionic lipids abundant in bioenergetic membranes has been reported, their effect on the shuttling activity of cyt. c2 remains elusive. Here, the effect of anionic lipids on the interaction and binding of cyt. c2 to the cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1) is investigated using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. MD is used to generate thermally accessible conformations of cyt. c2 and membrane-embedded bc1, which were subsequently used in multireplica BD simulations of diffusion of cyt. c2 from solution to bc1, in the presence of various lipids. We show that, counterintuitively, anionic lipids facilitate association of cyt. c2 with bc1 by localizing its diffusion to the membrane surface. The observed lipid-mediated bc1 association is further enhanced by the oxidized state of cyt. c2, in line with its physiological function. This lipid-mediated enhancement is salinity-dependent, and anionic lipids can disrupt cyt. c2-bc1 interaction at nonphysiological salt levels. Our data highlight the importance of the redox state of cyt. c2, the lipid composition of the chromatophore membrane, and the salinity of the chromatophore in regulating the efficiency of the electron shuttling process mediated by cyt. c2. The conclusions can be extrapolated to mitochondrial systems and processes, or any bioenergetic membrane, given the structural similarity between cyt. c2 and bc1 and their mitochondrial counterparts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-397
Number of pages13
JournalBiochemistry
Volume61
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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