This research investigates spatio-temporal patterns of police calls-for-service in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, at a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Modeling was implemented via Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). Temporal patterns for two-hour time periods, spatial patterns at the small-area scale, and space-time interaction (i.e., unusual departures from overall spatial and temporal patterns) were estimated. Temporally, calls-for-service were found to be lowest in the early morning (02:00-03:59) and highest in the evening (20:00-21:59), while high levels of calls-for-service were spatially located in central business areas and in areas characterized by major roadways, universities, and shopping centres. Space-time interaction was observed to be geographically dispersed during daytime hours but concentrated in central business areas during evening hours. Interpreted through the routine activity theory, results are discussed with respect to law enforcement resource demand and allocation, and the advantages of modeling spatio-temporal datasets with Bayesian INLA methods are highlighted.
- Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA)
- Law enforcement
- Police calls-for-service
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Computers in Earth Sciences
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)