This study explores understanding of primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected foreign-born Latino gay and bisexual men (GBM). Between August 2015 and December 2016, researchers conducted 33 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with HIV-infected foreign-born Latino GBM. Interview questions sought to determine participants’ knowledge and perceived barriers and facilitators to primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer. Researchers analyzed interview transcripts using a qualitative content analysis approach. For primary prevention, men reported a lack of knowledge about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, for secondary prevention, roughly 60% of participants had previously screened for anal dysplasia via anal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. However, participants reported willingness to screen, and provider recommendation was the most common screening facilitator. Men reported stigma related to their HIV status, sexual orientation, and anal Pap smear procedures as anal cancer screening barriers. Participants reported willingness to use a self-screening anal Pap smear test if it was commercially available. Health providers continue to be the leading source of health information. Therefore, provider recommendation for HPV vaccination and anal cancer screening among age-eligible foreign-born Latino HIV-infected GBM is critical. More work is needed to destigmatize HIV and sexual orientation to influence positive health behaviors among this population. Future intervention research could test the effects of provider-led interventions and also media campaigns aimed at influencing HPV vaccine uptake and anal cancer screening among this population.
- anal cancer
- anal intraepithelial neoplasia
- cancer prevention
- gay and bisexual men
- high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions
- human papillomavirus
ASJC Scopus subject areas