Carbon monoxide (CO)-metabolism and phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of a novel anaerobic, mesophilic and hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph are reported. Strain SVCO-16 was isolated from anaerobic sludge and grows autotrophically and mixotrophically with CO. The genes cooS and cooF, coding for a CO dehydrogenase complex, and genes similar to hycE2, encoding a CO-induced hydrogenase, were present in its genome. The isolate produces H2 and CO2 from CO, and acetate and formate from organic substrates. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence, it is an Alphaproteobacterium most closely related to the genus Pleomorphomonas (98.9%-99.2% sequence identity). Comparison with other previously characterized Pleomorphomonas showed that P. diazotrophica and P. oryzae do not metabolize CO, and P. diazotrophica does not grow anaerobically with organic substrates. Average nucleotide identity values between strain SVCO-16 and P. diazotrophica, P. oryzae or P. koreensis were 86.66 ± 0.21%. These values are below the boundary to define species (95%-96%). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization estimates between strain SVCO-16 and reference strains were also below the 70% threshold for species delineation: 29.1%-34.5%. Based on the differences in CO metabolism, genome analyses and cellular fatty acid composition, the isolate should be classified into the genus Pleomorphomonas as a representative of a novel species, Pleomorphomonas carboxyditropha. The type strain of Pleomorphomonas carboxyditropha is SVCO-16T (strain deposit numbers, DSM 106132T and TSD-119T).
- Anaerobic CO metabolism
- Carbon monoxide
- Mesophilic hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology