An Investigation of Integrated Multiscale Three-Dimensional Printing for Hierarchical Structures Fabrication

Xiangjia Li, Tommaso Baldacchini, Yong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nature provides us with a large number of functional material systems consisting of hierarchical structures, where significant variations in dimensions are present. Such hierarchical structures are difficult to build by traditional manufacturing processes due to manufacturing limitations. Nowadays, three-dimensional (3D) objects with complex structures can be built by gradually accumulating in a layer-based additive manufacturing (AM); however, the hierarchical structure measured from macroscale to nanoscale sizes still raises significant challenges to the AM processes, whose manufacturing capability is intrinsically specified within a certain scope. It is desired to develop a multiscale AM process to narrow this gap between scales of feature in hierarchical structures. This research aims to investigate an integration approach to fabricating hierarchical objects that have macro-, micro-, and nano-scales features in an object. Firstly, the process setup and the integrated process of two-photon polymerization (TPP), immersed surface accumulation (ISA), and mask image projection-based stereolithography (MIP-SL) were introduced to address the multiscale fabrication challenge. Then, special hierarchical design and process planning toward integrating multiple printing processes are demonstrated. Lastly, we present two test cases built by our hierarchical printing method to validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed multiscale hierarchical printing approach. The results demonstrated the capability of the developed multiscale 3D printing process and showed its future potential in various novel applications, such as optics, microfluidics, cell culture, as well as interface technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number041005
JournalJournal of Micro and Nano-Manufacturing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • additive manufacturing
  • bioinspiration
  • hierarchical fabrication
  • multiscale
  • photopolymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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