An Instrument Anomaly in the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam 1,009-nm Filter (R7): Characterization, Simulation, Correction, and Preliminary Verification

Simone J. Jakobsen, Kjartan M. Kinch, Morten Bo Madsen, James Bell, Danika Wellington, Lorinda Dajose, Khaled Alizai

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    During pre-flight calibration of the panoramic camera (Pancam) instrument on board the Mars Exploration Rovers MER A (Spirit) and MER B (Opportunity), a discrepancy was noted between 11-band spectra extracted from Pancam images of the camera's radiometric calibration target and reflectance spectra obtained with a spectrometer. This discrepancy was observed in the longest-wavelength filter of the camera (the longpass R7 filter with system λ eff  = 1,009 nm) and consisted of a reduction in contrast between bright and dark regions. Here we describe and characterize this effect. We propose that the effect arises because long-wavelength photons close to the silicon band-gap at 1,100 nm are allowed through the R7 filter, pass through the bulk charge-coupled device, scatter from the backside, pass through the charge-coupled device again, and are registered in a pixel other than the pixel through which they originally entered. Based on this hypothesis we develop a model capable of accurately simulating the effect, and correct for it. We present preliminary results from testing this correction on preflight, as well as in-flight, images. The effect is small, but in some specific cases in small regions of high contrast, the effect is significant. In in-flight images of Martian terrain we observed the signal in dark shadows to be artificially inflated by up to ∼ 33% and analysis of early-mission calibration target images indicated that the reduced contrast due to the artifact is equivalent to >100 DN (full well = 4095 DN) for a hypothetical perfectly dark pixel.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)96-115
    Number of pages20
    JournalEarth and Space Science
    Volume6
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

    Fingerprint

    Mars
    filter
    anomaly
    pixel
    simulation
    flight
    calibration
    wavelength
    silicon
    artifact
    reflectance
    spectrometer
    effect

    Keywords

    • calibration
    • CCD
    • Mars
    • MER
    • multispectral
    • Pancam

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
    • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

    Cite this

    An Instrument Anomaly in the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam 1,009-nm Filter (R7) : Characterization, Simulation, Correction, and Preliminary Verification. / Jakobsen, Simone J.; Kinch, Kjartan M.; Madsen, Morten Bo; Bell, James; Wellington, Danika; Dajose, Lorinda; Alizai, Khaled.

    In: Earth and Space Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 96-115.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jakobsen, Simone J. ; Kinch, Kjartan M. ; Madsen, Morten Bo ; Bell, James ; Wellington, Danika ; Dajose, Lorinda ; Alizai, Khaled. / An Instrument Anomaly in the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam 1,009-nm Filter (R7) : Characterization, Simulation, Correction, and Preliminary Verification. In: Earth and Space Science. 2019 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 96-115.
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    AU - Madsen, Morten Bo

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    AU - Dajose, Lorinda

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