An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease

Steve Horvath, Michael Gurven, Morgan E. Levine, Benjamin Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Hooman Allayee, Beate R. Ritz, Brian Chen, Ake T. Lu, Tammy M. Rickabaugh, Beth D. Jamieson, Dianjianyi Sun, Shengxu Li, Wei Chen, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Maud Fagny, Michael S. Kobor, Philip S. Tsao, Alexander P. Reiner, Kerstin L. EdlefsenDevin Absher, Themistocles L. Assimes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

150 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Epigenetic biomarkers of aging (the "epigenetic clock") have the potential to address puzzling findings surrounding mortality rates and incidence of cardio-metabolic disease such as: (1) women consistently exhibiting lower mortality than men despite having higher levels of morbidity; (2) racial/ethnic groups having different mortality rates even after adjusting for socioeconomic differences; (3) the black/white mortality cross-over effect in late adulthood; and (4) Hispanics in the United States having a longer life expectancy than Caucasians despite having a higher burden of traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: We analyzed blood, saliva, and brain samples from seven different racial/ethnic groups. We assessed the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (independent of blood cell counts) and the extrinsic epigenetic aging rates of blood (dependent on blood cell counts and tracks the age of the immune system). In blood, Hispanics and Tsimane Amerindians have lower intrinsic but higher extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians. African-Americans have lower extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians and Hispanics but no differences were found for the intrinsic measure. Men have higher epigenetic aging rates than women in blood, saliva, and brain tissue. Conclusions: Epigenetic aging rates are significantly associated with sex, race/ethnicity, and to a lesser extent with CHD risk factors, but not with incident CHD outcomes. These results may help elucidate lower than expected mortality rates observed in Hispanics, older African-Americans, and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number171
JournalGenome Biology
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 11 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

cardiovascular disease
ethnicity
nationalities and ethnic groups
Epigenomics
epigenetics
Coronary Disease
blood
gender
Hispanic Americans
mortality
Mortality
saliva
African American
blood cell counts
ethnic group
Blood Cell Count
risk factor
African Americans
brain
Saliva

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Black/white mortality cross-over
  • Coronary heart disease
  • DNA methylation
  • Epigenetic clock
  • Gender
  • Hispanic paradox
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Horvath, S., Gurven, M., Levine, M. E., Trumble, B., Kaplan, H., Allayee, H., ... Assimes, T. L. (2016). An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease. Genome Biology, 17(1), [171]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-1030-0

An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease. / Horvath, Steve; Gurven, Michael; Levine, Morgan E.; Trumble, Benjamin; Kaplan, Hillard; Allayee, Hooman; Ritz, Beate R.; Chen, Brian; Lu, Ake T.; Rickabaugh, Tammy M.; Jamieson, Beth D.; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Fagny, Maud; Kobor, Michael S.; Tsao, Philip S.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.

In: Genome Biology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 171, 11.08.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Horvath, S, Gurven, M, Levine, ME, Trumble, B, Kaplan, H, Allayee, H, Ritz, BR, Chen, B, Lu, AT, Rickabaugh, TM, Jamieson, BD, Sun, D, Li, S, Chen, W, Quintana-Murci, L, Fagny, M, Kobor, MS, Tsao, PS, Reiner, AP, Edlefsen, KL, Absher, D & Assimes, TL 2016, 'An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease', Genome Biology, vol. 17, no. 1, 171. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-1030-0
Horvath, Steve ; Gurven, Michael ; Levine, Morgan E. ; Trumble, Benjamin ; Kaplan, Hillard ; Allayee, Hooman ; Ritz, Beate R. ; Chen, Brian ; Lu, Ake T. ; Rickabaugh, Tammy M. ; Jamieson, Beth D. ; Sun, Dianjianyi ; Li, Shengxu ; Chen, Wei ; Quintana-Murci, Lluis ; Fagny, Maud ; Kobor, Michael S. ; Tsao, Philip S. ; Reiner, Alexander P. ; Edlefsen, Kerstin L. ; Absher, Devin ; Assimes, Themistocles L. / An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease. In: Genome Biology. 2016 ; Vol. 17, No. 1.
@article{15ba6bf35a8d49cda335640816d327b9,
title = "An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease",
abstract = "Background: Epigenetic biomarkers of aging (the {"}epigenetic clock{"}) have the potential to address puzzling findings surrounding mortality rates and incidence of cardio-metabolic disease such as: (1) women consistently exhibiting lower mortality than men despite having higher levels of morbidity; (2) racial/ethnic groups having different mortality rates even after adjusting for socioeconomic differences; (3) the black/white mortality cross-over effect in late adulthood; and (4) Hispanics in the United States having a longer life expectancy than Caucasians despite having a higher burden of traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: We analyzed blood, saliva, and brain samples from seven different racial/ethnic groups. We assessed the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (independent of blood cell counts) and the extrinsic epigenetic aging rates of blood (dependent on blood cell counts and tracks the age of the immune system). In blood, Hispanics and Tsimane Amerindians have lower intrinsic but higher extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians. African-Americans have lower extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians and Hispanics but no differences were found for the intrinsic measure. Men have higher epigenetic aging rates than women in blood, saliva, and brain tissue. Conclusions: Epigenetic aging rates are significantly associated with sex, race/ethnicity, and to a lesser extent with CHD risk factors, but not with incident CHD outcomes. These results may help elucidate lower than expected mortality rates observed in Hispanics, older African-Americans, and women.",
keywords = "Aging, Black/white mortality cross-over, Coronary heart disease, DNA methylation, Epigenetic clock, Gender, Hispanic paradox, Race",
author = "Steve Horvath and Michael Gurven and Levine, {Morgan E.} and Benjamin Trumble and Hillard Kaplan and Hooman Allayee and Ritz, {Beate R.} and Brian Chen and Lu, {Ake T.} and Rickabaugh, {Tammy M.} and Jamieson, {Beth D.} and Dianjianyi Sun and Shengxu Li and Wei Chen and Lluis Quintana-Murci and Maud Fagny and Kobor, {Michael S.} and Tsao, {Philip S.} and Reiner, {Alexander P.} and Edlefsen, {Kerstin L.} and Devin Absher and Assimes, {Themistocles L.}",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1186/s13059-016-1030-0",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
journal = "Genome Biology",
issn = "1465-6914",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease

AU - Horvath, Steve

AU - Gurven, Michael

AU - Levine, Morgan E.

AU - Trumble, Benjamin

AU - Kaplan, Hillard

AU - Allayee, Hooman

AU - Ritz, Beate R.

AU - Chen, Brian

AU - Lu, Ake T.

AU - Rickabaugh, Tammy M.

AU - Jamieson, Beth D.

AU - Sun, Dianjianyi

AU - Li, Shengxu

AU - Chen, Wei

AU - Quintana-Murci, Lluis

AU - Fagny, Maud

AU - Kobor, Michael S.

AU - Tsao, Philip S.

AU - Reiner, Alexander P.

AU - Edlefsen, Kerstin L.

AU - Absher, Devin

AU - Assimes, Themistocles L.

PY - 2016/8/11

Y1 - 2016/8/11

N2 - Background: Epigenetic biomarkers of aging (the "epigenetic clock") have the potential to address puzzling findings surrounding mortality rates and incidence of cardio-metabolic disease such as: (1) women consistently exhibiting lower mortality than men despite having higher levels of morbidity; (2) racial/ethnic groups having different mortality rates even after adjusting for socioeconomic differences; (3) the black/white mortality cross-over effect in late adulthood; and (4) Hispanics in the United States having a longer life expectancy than Caucasians despite having a higher burden of traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: We analyzed blood, saliva, and brain samples from seven different racial/ethnic groups. We assessed the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (independent of blood cell counts) and the extrinsic epigenetic aging rates of blood (dependent on blood cell counts and tracks the age of the immune system). In blood, Hispanics and Tsimane Amerindians have lower intrinsic but higher extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians. African-Americans have lower extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians and Hispanics but no differences were found for the intrinsic measure. Men have higher epigenetic aging rates than women in blood, saliva, and brain tissue. Conclusions: Epigenetic aging rates are significantly associated with sex, race/ethnicity, and to a lesser extent with CHD risk factors, but not with incident CHD outcomes. These results may help elucidate lower than expected mortality rates observed in Hispanics, older African-Americans, and women.

AB - Background: Epigenetic biomarkers of aging (the "epigenetic clock") have the potential to address puzzling findings surrounding mortality rates and incidence of cardio-metabolic disease such as: (1) women consistently exhibiting lower mortality than men despite having higher levels of morbidity; (2) racial/ethnic groups having different mortality rates even after adjusting for socioeconomic differences; (3) the black/white mortality cross-over effect in late adulthood; and (4) Hispanics in the United States having a longer life expectancy than Caucasians despite having a higher burden of traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: We analyzed blood, saliva, and brain samples from seven different racial/ethnic groups. We assessed the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (independent of blood cell counts) and the extrinsic epigenetic aging rates of blood (dependent on blood cell counts and tracks the age of the immune system). In blood, Hispanics and Tsimane Amerindians have lower intrinsic but higher extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians. African-Americans have lower extrinsic epigenetic aging rates than Caucasians and Hispanics but no differences were found for the intrinsic measure. Men have higher epigenetic aging rates than women in blood, saliva, and brain tissue. Conclusions: Epigenetic aging rates are significantly associated with sex, race/ethnicity, and to a lesser extent with CHD risk factors, but not with incident CHD outcomes. These results may help elucidate lower than expected mortality rates observed in Hispanics, older African-Americans, and women.

KW - Aging

KW - Black/white mortality cross-over

KW - Coronary heart disease

KW - DNA methylation

KW - Epigenetic clock

KW - Gender

KW - Hispanic paradox

KW - Race

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84981165311&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84981165311&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/s13059-016-1030-0

DO - 10.1186/s13059-016-1030-0

M3 - Article

C2 - 27511193

AN - SCOPUS:84981165311

VL - 17

JO - Genome Biology

JF - Genome Biology

SN - 1465-6914

IS - 1

M1 - 171

ER -