Amphibian decline and extinction: What we know and what we need to learn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For over 350 million yr, thousands of amphibian species have lived on Earth. Since the 1980s, amphibians have been disappearing at an alarming rate, in many cases quite suddenly. What is causing these declines and extinctions? In the modern era (post 1500) there are 6 leading causes of biodiversity loss in general, and all of these acting alone or together are responsible for modern amphibian declines: commercial use; introduced/exotic species that compete with, prey on, and parasitize native frogs and salamanders; land use change; contaminants; climate change; and infectious disease. The first 3 causes are historical in the sense that they have been operating for hundreds of years, although the rate of change due to each accelerated greatly after about the mid-20th century. Contaminants, climate change, and emerging infectious diseases are modern causes suspected of being responsible for the so-called 'enigmatic decline' of amphibians in protected areas. Introduced/exotic pathogens, land use change, and infctious disease are the 3 causes with a clear role in amphibian decline as well as extinction; thus far, the other 3 causes are only implicated in decline and not extinction. The present work is a review of the 6 causes with a focus on pathogens and suggested areas where new research is needed. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a chytrid fungus that is an emerging infectious disease causing amphibian population decline and species extinction. Historically, pathogens have not been seen as a major cause of extinction, but Bd is an exception, which is why it is such an interesting, important pathogen to understand. The late 20th and early 21st century global biodiversity loss is characterized as a sixth extinction event. Amphibians are a striking example of these losses as they disappear at a rate that greatly exceeds historical levels. Consequently, modern amphibian decline and extinction is a lens through which we can view the larger story of biodiversity loss and its consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume92
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

Fingerprint

amphibian
amphibians
extinction
infectious disease
pathogen
emerging diseases
pathogens
biodiversity
land use change
climate change
pollutant
twenty first century
population decline
Lens
salamanders and newts
frog
infectious diseases
protected area
frogs
conservation areas

Keywords

  • Amphibian extinction
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Chytrid fungus
  • Decline
  • Pathogens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Amphibian decline and extinction : What we know and what we need to learn. / Collins, James.

In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 92, No. 2-3, 2010, p. 93-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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