Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems

Cloud tops and cirrus anvils

Tomoko Kojima, P R Buseck, James C. Wilson, J. Michael Reeves, Michael J. Mahoney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aerosol particles from the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) were collected during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples were classified into three categories: (1) UT in-cloud, (2) UT out-of-cloud, and (3) LS. Sulfate particles, including former H2SO4 droplets, are dominant in samples from all categories. The morphology of H2SO4 droplets indicates that they had been ammoniated to some extent at the time of collection. They are internally mixed with organic materials, metal sulfates, and solid particles of various compositions. K- and S-bearing organic particles and Si-Al-rich particles are common to the three kinds of samples. In-cloud samples contain abundant Zn-rich particles. Their origin is unclear, but it seems likely that they are contaminants that originated through impact by ice cloud particles on the aircraft or sampling system. Ammoniation and internal mixing of H2SO4 in the UT aerosols may result in freezing at higher temperature than in pure H2SO4 aerosols. The relatively high extent of ammoniation in the UT in-cloud samples may have resulted from vertical transport of ammonia by strong convection. Abundances of nonsulfate particles decrease with increasing altitudes. The nonsulfate particles originated from the lower troposphere and were transported to the UT and LS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres
Volume109
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 27 2004

Fingerprint

Troposphere
convective system
cirrus
anvils
Aerosols
troposphere
aerosols
aerosol
Upper atmosphere
stratosphere
Sulfates
droplet
Bearings (structural)
sulfate
sulfates
Ice
ice clouds
particle
Ammonia
Freezing

Keywords

  • Cirrus clouds
  • Ice nucleation
  • Lower stratosphere
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Upper troposphere

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems : Cloud tops and cirrus anvils. / Kojima, Tomoko; Buseck, P R; Wilson, James C.; Reeves, J. Michael; Mahoney, Michael J.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, Vol. 109, No. 12, 27.06.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kojima, Tomoko ; Buseck, P R ; Wilson, James C. ; Reeves, J. Michael ; Mahoney, Michael J. / Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems : Cloud tops and cirrus anvils. In: Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres. 2004 ; Vol. 109, No. 12.
@article{75fc6567d2064ba4a7484900549b5791,
title = "Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems: Cloud tops and cirrus anvils",
abstract = "Aerosol particles from the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) were collected during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples were classified into three categories: (1) UT in-cloud, (2) UT out-of-cloud, and (3) LS. Sulfate particles, including former H2SO4 droplets, are dominant in samples from all categories. The morphology of H2SO4 droplets indicates that they had been ammoniated to some extent at the time of collection. They are internally mixed with organic materials, metal sulfates, and solid particles of various compositions. K- and S-bearing organic particles and Si-Al-rich particles are common to the three kinds of samples. In-cloud samples contain abundant Zn-rich particles. Their origin is unclear, but it seems likely that they are contaminants that originated through impact by ice cloud particles on the aircraft or sampling system. Ammoniation and internal mixing of H2SO4 in the UT aerosols may result in freezing at higher temperature than in pure H2SO4 aerosols. The relatively high extent of ammoniation in the UT in-cloud samples may have resulted from vertical transport of ammonia by strong convection. Abundances of nonsulfate particles decrease with increasing altitudes. The nonsulfate particles originated from the lower troposphere and were transported to the UT and LS.",
keywords = "Cirrus clouds, Ice nucleation, Lower stratosphere, Sulfuric acid, Transmission electron microscopy, Upper troposphere",
author = "Tomoko Kojima and Buseck, {P R} and Wilson, {James C.} and Reeves, {J. Michael} and Mahoney, {Michael J.}",
year = "2004",
month = "6",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1029/2003JD004504",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "109",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems

T2 - Cloud tops and cirrus anvils

AU - Kojima, Tomoko

AU - Buseck, P R

AU - Wilson, James C.

AU - Reeves, J. Michael

AU - Mahoney, Michael J.

PY - 2004/6/27

Y1 - 2004/6/27

N2 - Aerosol particles from the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) were collected during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples were classified into three categories: (1) UT in-cloud, (2) UT out-of-cloud, and (3) LS. Sulfate particles, including former H2SO4 droplets, are dominant in samples from all categories. The morphology of H2SO4 droplets indicates that they had been ammoniated to some extent at the time of collection. They are internally mixed with organic materials, metal sulfates, and solid particles of various compositions. K- and S-bearing organic particles and Si-Al-rich particles are common to the three kinds of samples. In-cloud samples contain abundant Zn-rich particles. Their origin is unclear, but it seems likely that they are contaminants that originated through impact by ice cloud particles on the aircraft or sampling system. Ammoniation and internal mixing of H2SO4 in the UT aerosols may result in freezing at higher temperature than in pure H2SO4 aerosols. The relatively high extent of ammoniation in the UT in-cloud samples may have resulted from vertical transport of ammonia by strong convection. Abundances of nonsulfate particles decrease with increasing altitudes. The nonsulfate particles originated from the lower troposphere and were transported to the UT and LS.

AB - Aerosol particles from the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) were collected during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples were classified into three categories: (1) UT in-cloud, (2) UT out-of-cloud, and (3) LS. Sulfate particles, including former H2SO4 droplets, are dominant in samples from all categories. The morphology of H2SO4 droplets indicates that they had been ammoniated to some extent at the time of collection. They are internally mixed with organic materials, metal sulfates, and solid particles of various compositions. K- and S-bearing organic particles and Si-Al-rich particles are common to the three kinds of samples. In-cloud samples contain abundant Zn-rich particles. Their origin is unclear, but it seems likely that they are contaminants that originated through impact by ice cloud particles on the aircraft or sampling system. Ammoniation and internal mixing of H2SO4 in the UT aerosols may result in freezing at higher temperature than in pure H2SO4 aerosols. The relatively high extent of ammoniation in the UT in-cloud samples may have resulted from vertical transport of ammonia by strong convection. Abundances of nonsulfate particles decrease with increasing altitudes. The nonsulfate particles originated from the lower troposphere and were transported to the UT and LS.

KW - Cirrus clouds

KW - Ice nucleation

KW - Lower stratosphere

KW - Sulfuric acid

KW - Transmission electron microscopy

KW - Upper troposphere

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4444256169&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4444256169&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2003JD004504

DO - 10.1029/2003JD004504

M3 - Article

VL - 109

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 12

ER -