The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean ± SD: age, 13.1 ± 1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n = 15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P < .05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12 781.7 ± 7454.2 vs 9799.0 ± 4918.6 μU·min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P = .03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (preintervention, 67.9 ± 14.5 kg; postintervention, 68.3 ± 14.0 kg) or percent body fat (preintervention, 41.4% ± 4.8%; postintervention, 40.7% ± 5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P < .01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r = -.68; P < .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (preintervention vs postintervention: adiponectin, 9.57 ± 3.01 vs 9.08 ± 2.32 μg/mL; IL-6, 1.67 ± 1.29 vs 1.65 ± 1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21 ± 2.48 vs 2.73 ± 1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (preintervention, 453.8 ± 159.3 ng/mL; postintervention, 403.2 ± 155.1 ng/mL; P < .05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating concentrations of adiponectin, IL-6, CRP, and other inflammatory markers. These findings suggest that increased physical activity may ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in children with a mechanism other than the parameters cited earlier.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism