OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and oxidation products (OP) predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Five specific AGE (methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone, carboxymethyl lysine, carboxyethyl lysine, 3-deoxyglucosone hydroimidazolone, and glyoxal hydroimidazolone) and two OP (2-Aminoadipic acid and methionine sulfoxide [MetSO]) were measured at baseline in two intensive glucose-lowering studies: 1) a subcohort of the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) (n = 445) and 2) a nested case-control subgroup from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study (n = 271). RESULTS Increased levels of several AGE and OP were associated with older age, decreased kidney function, previous CVD, and longer diabetes duration, but not with hemoglobin A1c. In the VADT, increased risk of incident CVD events (n = 107) was associated with lowerMetSOafter adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, prior CVDevent, kidney function, treatment assignment, and diabetes duration (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% CI 0.28-0.99; P = 0.047). Individualswith both lowMetSO and high 3-deoxyglucosone hydroimidazolone concentrations were at highest risk for CVD (HR 1.70; P = 0.01). In the ACCORD study, those with incident CVD events (n = 136) had lower MetSO (by 14%; P = 0.007) and higher glyoxal hydroimidazolone and carboxymethyl lysine (by 18%and 15%, respectively; P = 0.04 for both); however, only the difference inMetSO remained significant after adjustment for prior CVD event (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Lower levels ofMetSO and higher levels of select AGE are associated with increased incident CVD and may help account for the limited benefit of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing