Addition of an approach to a swimming relay start

S. P. McLean, M. J. Holthe, P. F. Vint, K. D. Beckett, R. N. Hinrichs

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    23 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Ten male collegiate swimmers (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 184.6 ± 5.8 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 9.3 kg) performed 3 swimming relay step starts, which incorporated a one or two-step approach, and a no-step relay start. Time to 10 m was not significantly shorter between step and no-step starts. A double-step start increased horizontal takeoff velocity by 0.2 m/s. A single-step together start decreased vertical takeoff velocity by 0.2 m/s but increased takeoff height by 0.16 m. Subjects were more upright at takeoff by 4°, 2°, and 5° in the double-step, single-step apart, and single-step together starts respectively, than in the no-step start. Entry angle was steeper by 2°, entry orientation was steeper by 3°, and entry vertical velocity was faster by 0.3 m/s in the single-step together start. Restricting step length by 50% had little effect on step starts with the exceptions that horizontal velocity was significantly reduced by 0.1 m/s in the double-step start and vertical takeoff velocity was increased by 0.2 m/s in the single-step together start. These data suggested that step starts offered some performance improvements over the no-step start, but these improvements were not widespread and, in the case of the double-step start, were dependent on the ability to take longer steps.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)342-355
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Applied Biomechanics
    Volume16
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

    Keywords

    • Projectile motion
    • Relay starts
    • Swimming

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biophysics
    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Rehabilitation

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