Adaptive strategies leading to the ectoproct ground-plan

Jack Farmer, James W. Valentine, Richard Cowen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ectoprocts may have descended from a vermiform, burrow-dwelling lophophorate ancestor that would probably be classed with the Phoronida if it were living. Stripped of their adaptations for small size, coloniality, and skeletonization, ectoprocts closely resemble phoronids. We propose that ectoprocts probably arose from a lineage that became epi- faunal, reproducing asexually to form tangled aggregations on hard substrates. Under these circumstances the disadvantages of aggregation, chiefly related to crowding, were mitigated through the development of small body size and by adoption of colonial habit. Coloniality was favored because it regulated intraspecific competition by controlling dispersion patterns and the spacing of individuals. It permitted coordinated manipulation of the environment in feeding and waste disposal, enhanced protection, and provided the opportunity for functional differentiation among individuals, thus promoting efficiency. Miniaturization led to the loss of distinct circulatory and excretory systems, while coloniality and eventual skeletonization led to a vast morphological and therefore ecological potential for the group. These factors appear to underlie the important place gained by ectoprocts in many benthic communities from the early Paleozoic until the present time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-239
Number of pages7
JournalSystematic Biology
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1973
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

excretory system
Miniaturization
circulatory system
Crowding
waste disposal
Body Size
intraspecific competition
Cardiovascular System
burrows
Habits
ancestry
body size
spatial distribution
burrow
benthos
spacing
Paleozoic
substrate
plan
dwelling

Keywords

  • Adaptive strategies
  • Ectoprocts
  • Phoronida

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics

Cite this

Adaptive strategies leading to the ectoproct ground-plan. / Farmer, Jack; Valentine, James W.; Cowen, Richard.

In: Systematic Biology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 01.01.1973, p. 233-239.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farmer, Jack ; Valentine, James W. ; Cowen, Richard. / Adaptive strategies leading to the ectoproct ground-plan. In: Systematic Biology. 1973 ; Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 233-239.
@article{7898d611818945dbad5cfab4d9ec1ffe,
title = "Adaptive strategies leading to the ectoproct ground-plan",
abstract = "Ectoprocts may have descended from a vermiform, burrow-dwelling lophophorate ancestor that would probably be classed with the Phoronida if it were living. Stripped of their adaptations for small size, coloniality, and skeletonization, ectoprocts closely resemble phoronids. We propose that ectoprocts probably arose from a lineage that became epi- faunal, reproducing asexually to form tangled aggregations on hard substrates. Under these circumstances the disadvantages of aggregation, chiefly related to crowding, were mitigated through the development of small body size and by adoption of colonial habit. Coloniality was favored because it regulated intraspecific competition by controlling dispersion patterns and the spacing of individuals. It permitted coordinated manipulation of the environment in feeding and waste disposal, enhanced protection, and provided the opportunity for functional differentiation among individuals, thus promoting efficiency. Miniaturization led to the loss of distinct circulatory and excretory systems, while coloniality and eventual skeletonization led to a vast morphological and therefore ecological potential for the group. These factors appear to underlie the important place gained by ectoprocts in many benthic communities from the early Paleozoic until the present time.",
keywords = "Adaptive strategies, Ectoprocts, Phoronida",
author = "Jack Farmer and Valentine, {James W.} and Richard Cowen",
year = "1973",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/sysbio/22.3.233",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "22",
pages = "233--239",
journal = "Systematic Biology",
issn = "1063-5157",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adaptive strategies leading to the ectoproct ground-plan

AU - Farmer, Jack

AU - Valentine, James W.

AU - Cowen, Richard

PY - 1973/1/1

Y1 - 1973/1/1

N2 - Ectoprocts may have descended from a vermiform, burrow-dwelling lophophorate ancestor that would probably be classed with the Phoronida if it were living. Stripped of their adaptations for small size, coloniality, and skeletonization, ectoprocts closely resemble phoronids. We propose that ectoprocts probably arose from a lineage that became epi- faunal, reproducing asexually to form tangled aggregations on hard substrates. Under these circumstances the disadvantages of aggregation, chiefly related to crowding, were mitigated through the development of small body size and by adoption of colonial habit. Coloniality was favored because it regulated intraspecific competition by controlling dispersion patterns and the spacing of individuals. It permitted coordinated manipulation of the environment in feeding and waste disposal, enhanced protection, and provided the opportunity for functional differentiation among individuals, thus promoting efficiency. Miniaturization led to the loss of distinct circulatory and excretory systems, while coloniality and eventual skeletonization led to a vast morphological and therefore ecological potential for the group. These factors appear to underlie the important place gained by ectoprocts in many benthic communities from the early Paleozoic until the present time.

AB - Ectoprocts may have descended from a vermiform, burrow-dwelling lophophorate ancestor that would probably be classed with the Phoronida if it were living. Stripped of their adaptations for small size, coloniality, and skeletonization, ectoprocts closely resemble phoronids. We propose that ectoprocts probably arose from a lineage that became epi- faunal, reproducing asexually to form tangled aggregations on hard substrates. Under these circumstances the disadvantages of aggregation, chiefly related to crowding, were mitigated through the development of small body size and by adoption of colonial habit. Coloniality was favored because it regulated intraspecific competition by controlling dispersion patterns and the spacing of individuals. It permitted coordinated manipulation of the environment in feeding and waste disposal, enhanced protection, and provided the opportunity for functional differentiation among individuals, thus promoting efficiency. Miniaturization led to the loss of distinct circulatory and excretory systems, while coloniality and eventual skeletonization led to a vast morphological and therefore ecological potential for the group. These factors appear to underlie the important place gained by ectoprocts in many benthic communities from the early Paleozoic until the present time.

KW - Adaptive strategies

KW - Ectoprocts

KW - Phoronida

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349788402&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349788402&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/sysbio/22.3.233

DO - 10.1093/sysbio/22.3.233

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:70349788402

VL - 22

SP - 233

EP - 239

JO - Systematic Biology

JF - Systematic Biology

SN - 1063-5157

IS - 3

ER -