Activation of rnase l in egyptian rousette bat-derived RoNi/7 cells is dependent primarily on OAS3 and independent of mavs signaling

Yize Li, Beihua Dong, Zuzhang Wei, Robert H. Silverman, Susan R. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bats are reservoirs for many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans yet relatively apathogenic in the natural host. It has been suggested that differences in innate immunity are responsible. The antiviral OAS-RNase L pathway is well characterized in humans, but there is little known about its activation and antiviral activity in bats. During infection, OASs, upon sensing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), produce 2=-5= oligoadenylates (2-5A), leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Humans encode three active OASs (OAS1 to-3). Analysis of the Egyptian Rousette bat genome combined with mRNA sequencing from bat RoNi/7 cells revealed three homologous OAS proteins. Interferon alpha treatment or viral infection induced all three OAS mRNAs, but RNase L mRNA is constitutively expressed. Sindbis virus (SINV) or vaccinia virus (VACVΔE3L) infection of wild-type (WT) or OAS1-KO (knockout), OAS2-KO, or MAVS-KO RoNi/7 cells, but not RNase L-KO or OAS3-KO cells, induces robust RNase L activation. SINV replication is 100-to 200-fold higher in the absence of RNase L or OAS3 than in WT cells. However, MAVS-KO had no detectable effect on RNA degradation or replication. Thus, in RoNi/7 bat cells, as in human cells, activation of RNase L during infection and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required for the activation of RNase L and restriction of infection. Our findings indicate that OAS proteins serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize viral dsRNA and that this pathway is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans are relatively apathogenic in their bat reservoirs, making it important to compare innate immune responses in bats to those well characterized in humans. One such antiviral response is the OAS-RNase L pathway. OASs, upon sensing dsRNA, produce 2-5A, leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Analysis of Egyptian Rousette bat sequences revealed three OAS genes expressing OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3 proteins. Interferon treatment or viral infection induces all three bat OAS mRNAs. In these bat cells as in human cells, RNase L activation and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required. Importantly, our findings indicate the OAS-RNase L system is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling and therefore can be activated early in infection or while interferon signaling is antagonized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere02414-19
JournalmBio
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bat innate immunity
  • DsRNA-induced pathways
  • Egyptian Rousette
  • OAS-RNase
  • OAS-RNase L
  • Rousettus aegyptiacus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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