Abrupt changes: The Achilles' heels of the earth system

Will Steffen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Bert Bolin, Peter M. Cox, Paul J. Crutzen, Ulrich Cubasch, Hermann Held, Nebojša Nakićenović, Robert J. Scholes, Liana Talaue-McManus, Billie Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Records from the past show that abrupt global change is the norm, not the exception, in the Earth System. Many recent changes-such as the globalization of the world's economy and the formation of the ozone hole over Antarctica-appear rapid even from the perspective of a single lifetime. What do we now know about the nature of abrupt changes in the Earth System and the probability that human actions could trigger them?

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-20
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironment
Volume46
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Earth (planet)
Ozone
global change
globalization
ozone
norm
world
economy
Antarctica

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Steffen, W., Andreae, M. O., Bolin, B., Cox, P. M., Crutzen, P. J., Cubasch, U., ... Turner, B. (2004). Abrupt changes: The Achilles' heels of the earth system. Environment, 46(3), 8-20.

Abrupt changes : The Achilles' heels of the earth system. / Steffen, Will; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Bolin, Bert; Cox, Peter M.; Crutzen, Paul J.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Held, Hermann; Nakićenović, Nebojša; Scholes, Robert J.; Talaue-McManus, Liana; Turner, Billie.

In: Environment, Vol. 46, No. 3, 04.2004, p. 8-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Steffen, W, Andreae, MO, Bolin, B, Cox, PM, Crutzen, PJ, Cubasch, U, Held, H, Nakićenović, N, Scholes, RJ, Talaue-McManus, L & Turner, B 2004, 'Abrupt changes: The Achilles' heels of the earth system', Environment, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 8-20.
Steffen W, Andreae MO, Bolin B, Cox PM, Crutzen PJ, Cubasch U et al. Abrupt changes: The Achilles' heels of the earth system. Environment. 2004 Apr;46(3):8-20.
Steffen, Will ; Andreae, Meinrat O. ; Bolin, Bert ; Cox, Peter M. ; Crutzen, Paul J. ; Cubasch, Ulrich ; Held, Hermann ; Nakićenović, Nebojša ; Scholes, Robert J. ; Talaue-McManus, Liana ; Turner, Billie. / Abrupt changes : The Achilles' heels of the earth system. In: Environment. 2004 ; Vol. 46, No. 3. pp. 8-20.
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