A study of bernalite, Fe(OH)3, using Mössbauer spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

C. A. McCammon, A. Pring, H. Keppler, Thomas Sharp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To study the crystal chemistry of bernalite, Fe(OH)3, and the nature of the octahedral Fe3+ environment, Mössbauer spectra were recorded from 80 to 350 K, optical spectra were recorded at room temperature and a sample was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The Mössbauer spectrum of bernalite consists of a single six-line magnetic spectrum at 80 K. A broadened six-line magnetic spectrum with significantly less intensity is observed at higher temperatures, and is attributed to a small fraction of bernalite occurring as small particles. The variation of hyperfine magnetic field data for bulk bernalite with temperature is well described by the Weiss molecular field model with parameters of H0 = 55.7±0.3 T and TN = 427±5K. The centre shift data were fitted to the Debye model with parameters δ0=0.482±0.005 mm/s (relative to α-Fe) and ΘM=492±30 K. The quadrupole shift is near zero at 300 K, and does not vary significantly with temperature. Absorption spectra in the visible and near infrared range show three crystal field bands of Fe3+ at 11 300, 16000 and 23 200 cm-1, giving a crystal field splitting of 14 570 cm-1 and Racah parameters of B=629 cm-1 and C=3381 cm-1. Infrared reflection spectra show two distinct OH-stretching frequencies, which could correspond to two structurally different types of OH groups. A band was also observed at 2250 cm-1, suggesting the presence of molecular CO2 in the large cation site. Analytical transmission electron microscopy indicates that Si occurs within the bernalite structure as well as along domain boundaries. Electron diffraction and imaging show that bernalite is polysynthetically twinned along {100} planes with twin domains ranging from 3 to 20 nm in thickness. Results are discussed with respect to the nature of the octahedral Fe3+ site, and compared with values for other iron oxides and hydroxides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
JournalPhysics and Chemistry of Minerals
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Light transmission
transmission electron microscopy
spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
Hydroxides
Crystal chemistry
Infrared radiation
Temperature
Crystals
Iron oxides
Electron diffraction
crystal
Stretching
Cations
Absorption spectra
iron hydroxide
crystal chemistry
Positive ions
temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

A study of bernalite, Fe(OH)3, using Mössbauer spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. / McCammon, C. A.; Pring, A.; Keppler, H.; Sharp, Thomas.

In: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 22, No. 1, 02.1995, p. 11-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "To study the crystal chemistry of bernalite, Fe(OH)3, and the nature of the octahedral Fe3+ environment, M{\"o}ssbauer spectra were recorded from 80 to 350 K, optical spectra were recorded at room temperature and a sample was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The M{\"o}ssbauer spectrum of bernalite consists of a single six-line magnetic spectrum at 80 K. A broadened six-line magnetic spectrum with significantly less intensity is observed at higher temperatures, and is attributed to a small fraction of bernalite occurring as small particles. The variation of hyperfine magnetic field data for bulk bernalite with temperature is well described by the Weiss molecular field model with parameters of H0 = 55.7±0.3 T and TN = 427±5K. The centre shift data were fitted to the Debye model with parameters δ0=0.482±0.005 mm/s (relative to α-Fe) and ΘM=492±30 K. The quadrupole shift is near zero at 300 K, and does not vary significantly with temperature. Absorption spectra in the visible and near infrared range show three crystal field bands of Fe3+ at 11 300, 16000 and 23 200 cm-1, giving a crystal field splitting of 14 570 cm-1 and Racah parameters of B=629 cm-1 and C=3381 cm-1. Infrared reflection spectra show two distinct OH-stretching frequencies, which could correspond to two structurally different types of OH groups. A band was also observed at 2250 cm-1, suggesting the presence of molecular CO2 in the large cation site. Analytical transmission electron microscopy indicates that Si occurs within the bernalite structure as well as along domain boundaries. Electron diffraction and imaging show that bernalite is polysynthetically twinned along {100} planes with twin domains ranging from 3 to 20 nm in thickness. Results are discussed with respect to the nature of the octahedral Fe3+ site, and compared with values for other iron oxides and hydroxides.",
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