A spiking-resistant all-al rear-junction n-type Si solar cell

Laidong Wang, Wen Cheng Sun, Clarence J. Tracy, Meng Tao, Yunyu Liu, Xusheng Wang, Guoqiang Xing

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In this paper we report a spiking-resistant all-Al rear junction n-type monocrystalline Si solar cell with an efficiency of 18%. This 1×1 inch2 cell is fabricated by ionic liquid based electroplating of Al as the front electrode on an n-type Si solar cell with screen-printed Al as the rear junction. Partially- processed cells are prepared in an industrial R&D line of Canadian Solar. The cells are patterned by photolithography to open the front contact. A seed layer of Ni is deposited by sputtering to assist Al electroplating. A finished cell is annealed at different temperatures from 150-450°C to evaluate the effect of temperature on its performance. Compared to a p-type all-Al cell we reported before, the n-type all-Al cell is more resistant to high temperature Al spiking. Further comparison between this cell which has an electroplated Al front electrode and control cells with a screen-printed Ag front electrode demonstrates the feasibility of replacing Ag with electroplated Al as the front electrode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509056057
StatePublished - May 25 2018
Event44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017 - Washington, United States
Duration: Jun 25 2017Jun 30 2017


Other44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
CountryUnited States


  • Aluminum electroplating
  • Aluminum spiking
  • Back emitter
  • Back junction
  • Shunting
  • Silicon solar cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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