A Simplified, Lossless Reanalysis of PAPER-64

Matthew Kolopanis, Daniel C. Jacobs, Carina Cheng, Aaron R. Parsons, Saul A. Kohn, Jonathan C. Pober, James E. Aguirre, Zaki S. Ali, Gianni Bernardi, Richard F. Bradley, Chris L. Carilli, David R. Deboer, Matthew R. Dexter, Joshua S. Dillon, Joshua Kerrigan, Pat Klima, Adrian Liu, David H.E. MacMahon, David F. Moore, Nithyanandan ThyagarajanChuneeta D. Nunhokee, William P. Walbrugh, Andre Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


We present limits on the 21 cm power spectrum from the Epoch of Reionization using data from the 64 antenna configuration of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) analyzed through a power spectrum pipeline independent from previous PAPER analyses. Previously reported results from PAPER have been found to contain significant signal loss. Several lossy steps from previous PAPER pipelines have not been included in this analysis, namely delay-based foreground filtering, optimal fringe-rate filtering, and empirical covariance-based estimators. Steps that remain in common with previous analyses include redundant calibration and local sidereal time (LST) binning. The power spectra reported here are effectively the result of applying a linear Fourier transform analysis to the calibrated, LST-binned data. This analysis also uses more data than previous publications, including the complete available redshift range of z ∼ 7.5 to 11. In previous PAPER analyses, many power spectrum measurements were found to be detections of noncosmological power at levels of significance ranging from two to hundreds of times the theoretical noise. Here, excess power is examined using redundancy between baselines and power spectrum jackknives. The upper limits we find on the 21 cm power spectrum from reionization are (1500 mK)2, (1900 mK)2, (280mK)2, (200mK)2, (380mK)2, and (300mK)2 at redshifts z = 10.87, 9.93, 8.68, 8.37, 8.13, and 7.48, respectively. For reasons described in Cheng et al., these limits supersede all previous PAPER results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number133
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • dark ages
  • first stars
  • reionization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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