True stress-true strain cannot be computed beyond necking, unless the effects of necking on the geometry of the tensile specimen and the stress state are accurately quantified. Necking produces a triaxial stress state that does not reflect the true uniaxial flow stress of the material. Therefore, the true stress must be multiplied by a correction factor to correct for the effect of the triaxial stresses and obtain the true uniaxial flow stress. While necking effects are easily quantified for specimens with circular cross-sections, specimens with rectangular cross-sections can exhibit complex necking geometry. In this paper, the necking behavior of pure Sn and Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solders was studied to: (1) quantify necking geometry in rectangular specimens using a novel mirror fixture and a high speed camera during tests conducted at 10 -3 to 30 s-1, and (2) develop a self-consistent method of necking correction that incorporates strain rate effects and can be applied to many materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5058-5066
Number of pages9
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number13
StatePublished - Dec 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys

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