A Scoping Review of Nonconsensual Condom Removal (“Stealthing”) Research

Kelly Cue Davis, Julia F. Hammett, Weiqi Chen, Robin Stewart, Mitchell Kirwan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nonconsensual condom removal (NCCR; also known as “stealthing”) involves the removal of a condom before or during sexual intercourse without a partner’s sexual consent. Within the past several years, nations across the globe have codified NCCR as a form of sexual violence penalized by civil and/or criminal penalties. Given the recent legal attention to this behavior, we performed a scoping review of the peer-reviewed, empirical, English-language studies conducted on NCCR in order to summarize the current state of this field of research. Our scoping review yielded 27 articles meeting study inclusion criteria. Data on NCCR victimization and perpetration prevalence rates and correlates, as well as perceptions of NCCR, were extracted. The majority of the reviewed studies were conducted within the past 5 years and pertained to NCCR victimization. Rates of NCCR victimization ranged from 7.9% to 43.0% for women and 5.0% to 19.0% for men who have sex with men; rates of NCCR perpetration ranged from 5.1% to 9.8% for men and 0% for women. NCCR correlates included sociodemographic variables, relationship type, psychological factors, and sexual health concerns. Perceptions of NCCR were largely negative. The nascent field of NCCR research provides empirical evidence from several countries regarding concerning rates of NCCR. Building upon this foundation, continued research regarding NCCR is imperative. Studies that further delineate NCCR prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes would provide critical information beneficial to the development of evidence-based prevention and intervention programs targeting reductions in NCCR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTrauma, Violence, and Abuse
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • nonconsensual condom removal
  • sexual assault
  • sexual coercion
  • sexual risk behavior
  • stealthing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'A Scoping Review of Nonconsensual Condom Removal (“Stealthing”) Research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this