1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

It is shown that an array of D-dot sensors can be implemented to not only detect, but for the first time, image very low-frequency electric fields. D-dot sensors sense current proportional to the time derivative of the electric field. The signal of interest is extracted from each D-dot pixel using a lock-in amplifier through an automated multiplexer. We have successfully rendered very low-frequency electric field images from energized wires using the proposed electric field imager. As a proof-of-concept, the arrays were fabricated on both a printed circuit board and a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate, the latter of which incorporates a thin-film transistor process. Such a device will have commercial and industrial applications, such as imaging sources of electromagnetic interference as well as security applications for noninvasive monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7407603
Pages (from-to)3181-3187
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Volume16
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

very low frequencies
Image sensors
Electric fields
electric fields
electromagnetic interference
sensors
Sensors
printed circuits
circuit boards
Thin film transistors
Signal interference
Printed circuit boards
Industrial applications
Polyethylenes
polyethylenes
transistors
amplifiers
Pixels
pixels
wire

Keywords

  • D-dot sensor
  • electric fields
  • Flexible electronics
  • imaging
  • sensor array
  • very low frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Chung, H. E., Ye, W., Vora, S. G., Rednour, S., & Allee, D. (2016). A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(9), 3181-3187. [7407603]. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2530741

A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager. / Chung, Hugh E.; Ye, Weidong; Vora, Sandeep G.; Rednour, Steve; Allee, David.

In: IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 16, No. 9, 7407603, 01.05.2016, p. 3181-3187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chung, HE, Ye, W, Vora, SG, Rednour, S & Allee, D 2016, 'A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager', IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 16, no. 9, 7407603, pp. 3181-3187. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2530741
Chung, Hugh E. ; Ye, Weidong ; Vora, Sandeep G. ; Rednour, Steve ; Allee, David. / A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager. In: IEEE Sensors Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 9. pp. 3181-3187.
@article{a819a08c5fc44b00ba75afc8369c3941,
title = "A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager",
abstract = "It is shown that an array of D-dot sensors can be implemented to not only detect, but for the first time, image very low-frequency electric fields. D-dot sensors sense current proportional to the time derivative of the electric field. The signal of interest is extracted from each D-dot pixel using a lock-in amplifier through an automated multiplexer. We have successfully rendered very low-frequency electric field images from energized wires using the proposed electric field imager. As a proof-of-concept, the arrays were fabricated on both a printed circuit board and a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate, the latter of which incorporates a thin-film transistor process. Such a device will have commercial and industrial applications, such as imaging sources of electromagnetic interference as well as security applications for noninvasive monitoring.",
keywords = "D-dot sensor, electric fields, Flexible electronics, imaging, sensor array, very low frequency",
author = "Chung, {Hugh E.} and Weidong Ye and Vora, {Sandeep G.} and Steve Rednour and David Allee",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/JSEN.2016.2530741",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "3181--3187",
journal = "IEEE Sensors Journal",
issn = "1530-437X",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Passive Very Low-Frequency (VLF) Electric Field Imager

AU - Chung, Hugh E.

AU - Ye, Weidong

AU - Vora, Sandeep G.

AU - Rednour, Steve

AU - Allee, David

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - It is shown that an array of D-dot sensors can be implemented to not only detect, but for the first time, image very low-frequency electric fields. D-dot sensors sense current proportional to the time derivative of the electric field. The signal of interest is extracted from each D-dot pixel using a lock-in amplifier through an automated multiplexer. We have successfully rendered very low-frequency electric field images from energized wires using the proposed electric field imager. As a proof-of-concept, the arrays were fabricated on both a printed circuit board and a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate, the latter of which incorporates a thin-film transistor process. Such a device will have commercial and industrial applications, such as imaging sources of electromagnetic interference as well as security applications for noninvasive monitoring.

AB - It is shown that an array of D-dot sensors can be implemented to not only detect, but for the first time, image very low-frequency electric fields. D-dot sensors sense current proportional to the time derivative of the electric field. The signal of interest is extracted from each D-dot pixel using a lock-in amplifier through an automated multiplexer. We have successfully rendered very low-frequency electric field images from energized wires using the proposed electric field imager. As a proof-of-concept, the arrays were fabricated on both a printed circuit board and a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate, the latter of which incorporates a thin-film transistor process. Such a device will have commercial and industrial applications, such as imaging sources of electromagnetic interference as well as security applications for noninvasive monitoring.

KW - D-dot sensor

KW - electric fields

KW - Flexible electronics

KW - imaging

KW - sensor array

KW - very low frequency

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84963807809&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84963807809&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2530741

DO - 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2530741

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84963807809

VL - 16

SP - 3181

EP - 3187

JO - IEEE Sensors Journal

JF - IEEE Sensors Journal

SN - 1530-437X

IS - 9

M1 - 7407603

ER -