A MHz-repetition-rate hard X-ray free-electron laser driven by a superconducting linear accelerator

W. Decking, S. Abeghyan, P. Abramian, A. Abramsky, A. Aguirre, C. Albrecht, P. Alou, M. Altarelli, P. Altmann, K. Amyan, V. Anashin, E. Apostolov, K. Appel, D. Auguste, V. Ayvazyan, S. Baark, F. Babies, N. Baboi, P. Bak, V. BalandinR. Baldinger, B. Baranasic, S. Barbanotti, O. Belikov, V. Belokurov, L. Belova, V. Belyakov, S. Berry, M. Bertucci, B. Beutner, A. Block, M. Blöcher, T. Böckmann, C. Bohm, M. Böhnert, V. Bondar, E. Bondarchuk, M. Bonezzi, P. Borowiec, C. Bösch, U. Bösenberg, A. Bosotti, R. Böspflug, M. Bousonville, E. Boyd, Y. Bozhko, A. Brand, J. Branlard, S. Briechle, F. Brinker, S. Brinker, R. Brinkmann, S. Brockhauser, O. Brovko, H. Brück, A. Brüdgam, L. Butkowski, T. Büttner, J. Calero, E. Castro-Carballo, G. Cattalanotto, J. Charrier, J. Chen, A. Cherepenko, V. Cheskidov, M. Chiodini, A. Chong, S. Choroba, M. Chorowski, D. Churanov, W. Cichalewski, M. Clausen, W. Clement, C. Cloué, J. A. Cobos, N. Coppola, S. Cunis, K. Czuba, M. Czwalinna, B. D’Almagne, J. Dammann, H. Danared, A. de Zubiaurre Wagner, A. Delfs, T. Delfs, F. Dietrich, T. Dietrich, M. Dohlus, M. Dommach, A. Donat, X. Dong, N. Doynikov, M. Dressel, M. Duda, P. Duda, H. Eckoldt, W. Ehsan, J. Eidam, F. Eints, C. Engling, U. Englisch, A. Ermakov, K. Escherich, J. Eschke, E. Saldin, M. Faesing, A. Fallou, M. Felber, M. Fenner, B. Fernandes, J. M. Fernández, S. Feuker, K. Filippakopoulos, K. Floettmann, V. Fogel, M. Fontaine, A. Francés, I. Freijo Martin, W. Freund, T. Freyermuth, M. Friedland, L. Fröhlich, M. Fusetti, J. Fydrych, A. Gallas, O. García, L. Garcia-Tabares, G. Geloni, N. Gerasimova, C. Gerth, P. Geßler, V. Gharibyan, M. Gloor, J. Głowinkowski, A. Goessel, Z. Gołębiewski, N. Golubeva, W. Grabowski, W. Graeff, A. Grebentsov, M. Grecki, T. Grevsmuehl, M. Gross, U. Grosse-Wortmann, J. Grünert, S. Grunewald, P. Grzegory, G. Feng, H. Guler, G. Gusev, J. L. Gutierrez, L. Hagge, M. Hamberg, R. Hanneken, E. Harms, I. Hartl, A. Hauberg, S. Hauf, J. Hauschildt, J. Hauser, J. Havlicek, A. Hedqvist, N. Heidbrook, F. Hellberg, D. Henning, O. Hensler, T. Hermann, A. Hidvégi, M. Hierholzer, H. Hintz, F. Hoffmann, Markus Hoffmann, Matthias Hoffmann, Y. Holler, M. Hüning, A. Ignatenko, M. Ilchen, A. Iluk, J. Iversen, J. Iversen, M. Izquierdo, L. Jachmann, N. Jardon, U. Jastrow, K. Jensch, J. Jensen, M. Jeżabek, M. Jidda, H. Jin, N. Johannson, R. Jonas, W. Kaabi, D. Kaefer, R. Kammering, H. Kapitza, S. Karabekyan, S. Karstensen, K. Kasprzak, V. Katalev, D. Keese, B. Keil, M. Kholopov, M. Killenberger, B. Kitaev, Y. Klimchenko, R. Klos, L. Knebel, A. Koch, M. Koepke, S. Köhler, W. Köhler, N. Kohlstrunk, Z. Konopkova, A. Konstantinov, W. Kook, W. Koprek, M. Körfer, O. Korth, A. Kosarev, K. Kosiński, D. Kostin, Y. Kot, A. Kotarba, T. Kozak, V. Kozak, R. Kramert, M. Krasilnikov, A. Krasnov, B. Krause, L. Kravchuk, O. Krebs, R. Kretschmer, J. Kreutzkamp, O. Kröplin, K. Krzysik, G. Kube, H. Kuehn, N. Kujala, V. Kulikov, V. Kuzminych, D. La Civita, M. Lacroix, T. Lamb, A. Lancetov, M. Larsson, D. Le Pinvidic, S. Lederer, T. Lensch, D. Lenz, A. Leuschner, F. Levenhagen, Y. Li, J. Liebing, L. Lilje, T. Limberg, D. Lipka, B. List, J. Liu, S. Liu, B. Lorbeer, J. Lorkiewicz, H. H. Lu, F. Ludwig, K. Machau, W. Maciocha, C. Madec, C. Magueur, C. Maiano, I. Maksimova, K. Malcher, T. Maltezopoulos, E. Mamoshkina, B. Manschwetus, F. Marcellini, G. Marinkovic, T. Martinez, H. Martirosyan, W. Maschmann, M. Maslov, A. Matheisen, U. Mavric, J. Meißner, K. Meissner, M. Messerschmidt, N. Meyners, G. Michalski, P. Michelato, N. Mildner, M. Moe, F. Moglia, C. Mohr, S. Mohr, W. Möller, M. Mommerz, L. Monaco, C. Montiel, M. Moretti, I. Morozov, P. Morozov, D. Mross, J. Mueller, C. Müller, J. Müller, K. Müller, J. Munilla, A. Münnich, V. Muratov, O. Napoly, B. Näser, N. Nefedov, Reinhard Neumann, Rudolf Neumann, N. Ngada, D. Noelle, F. Obier, I. Okunev, J. A. Oliver, M. Omet, A. Oppelt, A. Ottmar, M. Oublaid, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, V. Paramonov, C. Peitzmann, J. Penning, A. Perus, F. Peters, B. Petersen, A. Petrov, I. Petrov, S. Pfeiffer, J. Pflüger, S. Philipp, Y. Pienaud, P. Pierini, S. Pivovarov, M. Planas, E. Pławski, M. Pohl, J. Polinski, V. Popov, S. Prat, J. Prenting, G. Priebe, H. Pryschelski, K. Przygoda, E. Pyata, B. Racky, A. Rathjen, W. Ratuschni, S. Regnaud-Campderros, K. Rehlich, D. Reschke, C. Robson, J. Roever, M. Roggli, J. Rothenburg, E. Rusiński, R. Rybaniec, H. Sahling, M. Salmani, L. Samoylova, D. Sanzone, F. Saretzki, O. Sawlanski, J. Schaffran, H. Schlarb, M. Schlösser, V. Schlott, C. Schmidt, F. Schmidt-Foehre, M. Schmitz, M. Schmökel, T. Schnautz, E. Schneidmiller, M. Scholz, B. Schöneburg, J. Schultze, C. Schulz, A. Schwarz, J. Sekutowicz, D. Sellmann, E. Semenov, S. Serkez, D. Sertore, N. Shehzad, P. Shemarykin, L. Shi, M. Sienkiewicz, D. Sikora, M. Sikorski, A. Silenzi, C. Simon, W. Singer, X. Singer, H. Sinn, K. Sinram, N. Skvorodnev, P. Smirnow, T. Sommer, A. Sorokin, M. Stadler, M. Steckel, B. Steffen, N. Steinhau-Kühl, F. Stephan, M. Stodulski, M. Stolper, A. Sulimov, R. Susen, J. Świerblewski, C. Sydlo, E. Syresin, V. Sytchev, J. Szuba, N. Tesch, J. Thie, A. Thiebault, K. Tiedtke, D. Tischhauser, J. Tolkiehn, S. Tomin, F. Tonisch, F. Toral, I. Torbin, A. Trapp, D. Treyer, G. Trowitzsch, T. Trublet, T. Tschentscher, F. Ullrich, M. Vannoni, P. Varela, G. Varghese, G. Vashchenko, M. Vasic, C. Vazquez-Velez, A. Verguet, S. Vilcins-Czvitkovits, R. Villanueva, B. Visentin, M. Viti, E. Vogel, E. Volobuev, R. Wagner, N. Walker, T. Wamsat, H. Weddig, G. Weichert, H. Weise, R. Wenndorf, M. Werner, R. Wichmann, C. Wiebers, M. Wiencek, T. Wilksen, I. Will, L. Winkelmann, M. Winkowski, K. Wittenburg, A. Witzig, P. Wlk, T. Wohlenberg, M. Wojciechowski, F. Wolff-Fabris, G. Wrochna, K. Wrona, M. Yakopov, B. Yang, F. Yang, M. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov, P. Zalden, A. Zavadtsev, D. Zavadtsev, A. Zhirnov, A. Zhukov, V. Ziemann, A. Zolotov, N. Zolotukhina, F. Zummack, D. Zybin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

The European XFEL is a hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) based on a high-electron-energy superconducting linear accelerator. The superconducting technology allows for the acceleration of many electron bunches within one radio-frequency pulse of the accelerating voltage and, in turn, for the generation of a large number of hard X-ray pulses. We report on the performance of the European XFEL accelerator with up to 5,000 electron bunches per second and demonstrating a full energy of 17.5 GeV. Feedback mechanisms enable stabilization of the electron beam delivery at the FEL undulator in space and time. The measured FEL gain curve at 9.3 keV is in good agreement with predictions for saturated FEL radiation. Hard X-ray lasing was achieved between 7 keV and 14 keV with pulse energies of up to 2.0 mJ. Using the high repetition rate, an FEL beam with 6 W average power was created.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-397
Number of pages7
JournalNature Photonics
Volume14
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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    Decking, W., Abeghyan, S., Abramian, P., Abramsky, A., Aguirre, A., Albrecht, C., Alou, P., Altarelli, M., Altmann, P., Amyan, K., Anashin, V., Apostolov, E., Appel, K., Auguste, D., Ayvazyan, V., Baark, S., Babies, F., Baboi, N., Bak, P., ... Zybin, D. (2020). A MHz-repetition-rate hard X-ray free-electron laser driven by a superconducting linear accelerator. Nature Photonics, 14(6), 391-397. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-020-0607-z