A Fixed-Flexible BESS Allocation Scheme for Transmission Networks Considering Uncertainties

Malhar Padhee, Anamitra Pal, Chetan Mishra, Katelynn A. Vance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) can play a key role in mitigating the intermittency and uncertainty associated with adding large amounts of renewable energy to the bulk power system (BPS). Two BESS technologies that have gained prominence in this regard are Lithium-ion (LI) BESS and Vanadium redox flow (VRF) BESS. This paper proposes a fixed-flexible BESS allocation scheme that exploits the complementary characteristics of LI and VRF BESSs to attain optimal techno-economic benefits in a wind-integrated BPS. Studies carried out on relatively large transmission networks demonstrate that benefits such as reduction in system operation cost, wind spillage, voltage fluctuations, and discounted payback period, can be realized by using the proposed scheme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8861411
Pages (from-to)1883-1897
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Bivariate piecewise linearization (BPL)
  • Vanadium redox flow (VRF)
  • fixed-flexible BESS
  • mixed integer linear program (MILP)
  • mixture model
  • wind energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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