Though there are significant efforts to develop numerical platforms to simulate the dynamic behaviors of responsive gels, several challenges were not successfully resolved, including truly robust method to handle time-dependent and coupled mass diffusion and deformation fields particularly at very short-time and complicated instability. In this Letter, a facile, robust and versatile finite element method was developed to resolve these challenges by adopting ramping boundary conditions, viscous damping, and damped Newton–Raphson method. This method can be readily implemented in a commercial platform COMSOL Multiphysics. The finite element method was showcased to study several dynamic examples that possess very short-time surface wrinkles, wrinkle evolutions, and incorporation with other physics field. Given the fact that the implementation is through a commercial platform, this method can have significant contributions to the studies of gels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-97
Number of pages9
JournalExtreme Mechanics Letters
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • Finite element methods
  • Gel
  • Transient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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