3.10 Physical–Chemical Processes for Nitrogen Removal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Physical–chemical processes for nitrogen removal provide an alternative to biological nitrogen-removal processes. Advantages of physical–chemical processes include quantitative nitrogen removal, robust treatment with respect to wastewater type and reactor configuration, and multiple options for nitrogen recovery. Physical–chemical processes for nitrogen removal have been used for remediation of polluted groundwater, domestic wastewater, landfill leachate, animal-waste lagoons, and human urine. This chapter focuses on the most widely studied physical–chemical processes for nitrogen removal: ammonium removal by ion exchange using selective zeolites and nitrate removal by ion exchange using selective resins. This chapter discusses the ion exchange materials, kinetics, equilibria, process performance, regeneration, and recommendations for further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationComprehensive Water Quality and Purification
Number of pages33
ISBN (Electronic)9780123821829
ISBN (Print)9780123821836
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Air stripping
  • Ammonia/ammonium
  • Brine
  • Clinoptilolite
  • Fixed-bed reactor
  • Fluidized-bed reactor
  • Ion exchange
  • Isotherm
  • Kinetics
  • Nitrate-selective resin
  • Nitrification/denitrification
  • Nutrient recovery
  • Regeneration
  • Sorption
  • Zeolite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)


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