Cigarette smoking remains the single largest preventable cause of premature death and disability in the United States, and effective antismoking campaigns require an empirical understanding of the natural history of smoking and its determinants. The proposed supplement to our current grant DA 13555 Teen& Adult Smoking: Intergenerational Transmission and Prevention Applications, has as its major goals to describe the natural history of smoking from adolescence to adulthood; test social psychological models of smoking transition, understand the intergenerational transmission of smoking and test the effects of an approach-avoidance practice along with a health communication (public service announcement) on implicit smoking attitudes and attention to intervention messages. The current proposal extends this latter aim to examine the effects of the FDAs graphic smoking labels on implicit attitudes and attention to intervention. The proposed project will re-recruit a group of young adults (18-25) who were measured previously as adolescents (in 2004-2005) as part of a family socialization study. Using the web-based procedures that we have in place, these young adults will take part in a short term (1 week) longitudinal study to examine the effects of the FDA graphic labels on implicit attitudes (measured both before and after exposure). . We will test whether the effects of the images are related to the component automatic and controlled processes of implicit attitudes and whether these relations vary among different risk groups for smoking, based on measures of personality, symptomology, and smoking risk that were measured 8 years earlier while these young adults were adolescents. The results will be important test the effectiveness of he graphic labels on implicit attitudes and help identify the effective mechanisms for the effectiveness of exposure to such labels. Relevance: Because cigarette smoking is the single largest preventable cause of premature death and disability in the US, creating effective prevention and cessation interventions is an important public health goal. The data from the proposed studies will advance understanding of the levels and modes of efficacy of the PDAs graphic tobacco warning labels.
Cigarette smoking remains the single largest preventable cause of premature death and disability in the United States, and effective antismoking campaigns require an empirical understanding of the natural history of smoking and its determinants. The proposed research extends our cohort-sequential study of smoking and its intergenerational transmission and integrates this study with an experimental, translational application to family-based smoking prevention and midlife cessation. Cohorts of 6th-12th graders (N=8,521) were followed annually between 1980-1983 to prospectively predict adolescent smoking transitions with social psychological models. Four additional follow-ups were conducted in 1987-1988; 1993-1994; 1999-2000, and 2005-2006 (for a total of eight measurement waves with more than 70% retention of the total sample at each wave). Web-based studies of implicit attitudes toward smoking and their role in smoking transitions and the intergenerational transmission of smoking were initiated in the last project period. The proposed studies combine a 9th measurement of our total sample using a mailed survey with short-term longitudinal, studies of targeted subgroups using web-based methods. We embed smoking in a developmental context by relating smoking trajectories to the unique hallmarks of midlife development, and by relating midlife conditions to parents' socialization of smoking in the next generation. We then employ these data in a translational application to family-based smoking prevention and midlife cessation. Using web-based, experimental, shortterm longitudinal studies of targeted subgroups, we will test the effects of approach-avoidance practice and an anti-smoking PSA on an unobtrusive measure of engagement with intervention information. We will test whether the effects of our interventions are mediated by changes in implicit attitudes, and we will identify the component automatic and controlled processes of implicit attitudes that are responsible for these effects (and that are predictive of later smoking outcomes). The results will be important for improving engagement in family-based smoking prevention programs, tailoring smoking cessation messages aimed at midlife adults, and understanding the intergenerational transmission of smoking.
This subcontract is part of a multiple Principal Investigator grant application. As such, the roles and areas of responsibilities within the overall grant are laid out in the Leadership Plan. The relevant text describing the responsibilities of the Principal Investigators at the two sites is repeated here: Roles and areas of responsibility. Because each of the three principal investigators has unique expertise, each takes responsibility for leading the team for different research questions. Dr. Presson, trained as a developmental psychologist, takes leadership for questions concerning the relation of smoking to midlife development; Dr. Sherman, trained as a cognitive social psychologist, takes leadership for questions that focus on the role of implicit attitudes in smoking behavior; and Dr. Chassin, trained as a child clinical psychologist, takes leadership for questions concerning the intergenerational transmission of smoking and applications of the findings to preventive intervention and cessation intervention. However, for each aim, the leading principal investigator closely collaborates with each of the others, so that we will continue to share virtually all responsibilities of the project. That is, we do not mean to imply a structure of three separate individually-led projects. Rather, just as the research questions are inextricably linked, all three principal investigators will collaborate on the studies, but each has a distinct leadership role. The two research sites also have differential responsibility, with Dr. Sherman (along with Mr. Macy) at the Indiana University site, having greater day to day management of the large survey data collection, and Drs. Chassin and Presson at ASU, having greater responsibility for supervising data analysis. Again, however, although one site may take leadership and greater day to day responsibility, all three principal investigators and both sites will collaborate in all project activities. Publication authorships will be based on the relative scientific contributions of the PIs and key personnel.
|Effective start/end date||11/1/10 → 6/30/16|
- HHS: National Institutes of Health (NIH): $3,135,556.00