Novel materials to increase pleasure and enhance erection (ASUF 30006147) Novel materials to increase pleasure and enhance erection Section I As a method of birth control, condoms have many advantages of low-cost, easy to use, and providing protection against numerous sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the drawbacks to more universal and consistent use of condoms are their tendencies to decrease pleasure and/or induce the loss of erection. The reason for these obstacles is that condoms are made from hydrophobic materials, such as latex, polyurethane, and polyisoprene. These hydrophobic materials are excluded from the human physiological environment, such as the surface of the skin. Thus, currently used condoms always cause the foreign body sensation to decrease pleasure and/or induce the loss of erection. We propose to design and prepare a skin-like condom, which mimics the membrane of living cells to increase pleasure and enhance erection. The human cell membrane is a biological membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of living cells.1 It involves in a variety of cellular processes such as ion conductivity, cell adhesion and cell communication. Cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins (Fig. 1A).1 The lipid bilayer contains three kinds of amphipathic lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterol, in which phospholipids and glycolipids are the most abundant. Phospholipid contains two fatty chains, one negative charged phosphate and one positive charged amine group. Glycolipid contains two fatty chains and one sugar molecule. The fatty chains form the hydrophobic tail in the amphipathic lipid bilayer; the ionized phosphate and sugar molecules form the hydrophilic head. In this study, we will covalently couple a glycosylated proline derivative to the surface of a polyisoprene condom to mimic the structure of cell membrane (Fig. 1B). Furthermore, the mechanism of erection is activated by nitric oxide (NO).2 The NO in the corpus cavernosum of the penis activates the guanylate cyclase to produce guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which leads the smooth muscle of the helicine arteries to relax. The smooth muscle relaxation (vasodilation) results in the spongy tissue of the penis to fill with increased blood, which leads to an erection. Additionally, a female arousal has a similar NO process. In this proposal, we plan to couple a nitric oxide donor to the surface of condom to help the erection and female arousal. Recently, a series of glycosylated RPOLI/NO derivatives have been reported as nitric oxide prodrugs.3 These prodrugs were activitated by N-acetylgluosaminidase to release NO. In this study, we will couple the GlcNAc- PROLI/NO (1, Scheme 1) to the surface of the condom. The GlcNAc-PROLI/NO molecule contains one negative charged oxygen atom and one positive charged amine group, which is an ideal mimic of the hydrophilic head of phospholipids. It also contains an N-aceylglucosamine group, which mimics the hydrophilic head of glycolipids. Since the polyisoprene is hydrophobic molecule, it is the mimic of hydrophobic tail of the lipid bilayer of cell membrane (Fig. 1). The GlcNAc-PROLI/NO molecule will be coupled to the surface of condom, and will not react with the internal polyisoprene molecules. Thus, the novel condom will have the similar elastic properties to a common condom to protect the female from pregnancy and both partners from STIs. Additionally, the GlcNAc-PROLI/NO molecule is a perfect mimic of both the phospholipids and glycolipids, which are the majority constituent part of lipid bilayer of cell membrane. Thus, the novel condom should be felt like real skin to increase pleasure to both partners. Furthermore, NO will be released from the novel condom in the presence of human bodily fluids to enhance a male erection and a female arousal.
|Effective start/end date||5/1/14 → 10/31/15|
- Gates (Bill and Melinda) Foundation: $100,000.00
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