Almond Ingestion to Reduce Hemoglobin A1C in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

Project: Research project

Project Details


Almond Ingestion to Reduce Hemoglobin A1C in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Almond Ingestion to Reduce Hemoglobin A1C in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Hemoglobin A1c is a widely utilized indicator of blood glucose control in individuals with diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c represents the average blood glucose status of an individual over the past 2-3 months. Although 26% of individuals with diabetes require insulin treatment to lower blood glucose concentrations, most patients rely on diet and/or oral glucose medications to manage blood glucose1. Yet, only 37% of patients are able to successfully manage blood glucose and lower their hemoglobin A1c2. High blood glucose concentrations induce oxidative stress and inflammation contributing to the complications of diabetes including kidney failure, blindness, heart disease, and stroke3. Oxidative stress can also raise blood pressure by decreasing nitric oxide levels, a vasodilator present in blood vessel walls. Clearly, the consequences of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes are devastating. New strategies that are simple, inexpensive, and easily adopted across diverse population groups are needed to increase therapeutic success for this patient population. Investigations from our laboratories and those of others have demonstrated almond-related reductions in postprandial glycemia at mealtime4-6. Additionally, we recently demonstrated in a small, 12-week, pilot trial that almond ingestion (1 ounce, 5x per week) modestly lowered hemoglobin A1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes4. However, this trial was underpowered (detection probability<40%). Furthermore, since participants diabetes was well controlled (over 75% of the sample started the trial with hemoglobin A1c<7), the ability to detect improvement in glucose concentrations using hemoglobin A1c as the marker was restricted. The proposed trial will examine the impact of daily almond ingestion on markers of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, and fasting blood glucose and insulin) as well as oxidative stress and inflammation (8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxynonenal, nitrotyrosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6) in diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The study is powered to detect a 0.5% change in hemoglobin A1c. Trial exclusion criteria will include nut allergies, active disease states, insulin treatment, hemoglobin A1c<7, daily dietary intake of >12% monounsaturated fatty acids, anticipated changes in diet or physical activity level, pregnancy or lactation. Prescription use (e.g., statins, hypertensive, oral hypoglycemic medications) is permitted if use has been consistent for 3 months and change is not anticipated. Participants will ingest 1.5 servings (oz) almonds 5-7 days weekly for 12 weeks. Participants will be 25 75 years of age and maintain their normal diet and physical activity patterns during the trial.
Effective start/end date7/1/1212/31/13


  • USDA: National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA): $151,992.00


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