Rogier Windhorst

Regents Professor

  • 9931 Citations
  • 52 h-Index
1987 …2023
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Research Output 1987 2019

  • 9931 Citations
  • 52 h-Index
  • 200 Article
  • 10 Conference contribution
  • 1 Conference article
  • 1 Patent
Filter
Article
2005
22 Citations (Scopus)

A redshift z≈5.4 lyα emitting galaxy with linear morphology in the GRAPES/Hubble ultra deep field

Rhoads, J. E., Panagia, N., Windhorst, R., Malhotra, S., Pirzkal, N., Xu, C., Strolger, L. G., Bergeron, L. E., Daddi, E., Ferguson, H., Gardner, J. P., Gronwall, C., Haiman, Z., Koekemoer, A., Kümmel, M., Moustakas, L. A., Pasquali, A., Riess, A., Di Serego Alighieri, S., Stiavelli, M. & 4 others, Tsvetanov, Z., Vernet, J., Walsh, J. & Yan, H., Mar 10 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 621, 2 I, p. 582-586 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
spectral resolution
erg
plumes
brightness
25 Citations (Scopus)

Constraining the distribution of L and T dwarfs in the galaxy

Ryan, R. E., Hathi, N. P., Cohen, S. H. & Windhorst, R., Oct 1 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 631, 2 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

scale height
galaxies
dropouts
color
stars
85 Citations (Scopus)

High-resolution studies of radio sources in the Hubble Deep and Flanking Fields

Muxlow, T. W. B., Richards, A. M. S., Garrington, S. T., Wilkinson, P. N., Anderson, B., Richards, E. A., Axon, D. J., Fomalont, E. B., Kellermann, K. I., Partridge, R. B. & Windhorst, R., Apr 21 2005, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 358, 4, p. 1159-1194 36 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

radio
high resolution
flux density
compact galaxies
disk galaxies
10 Citations (Scopus)

Hubble space telescope imaging of the ultracompact blue dwarf galaxy HS 0822 + 3542: An assembling galaxy in a local void?

Corbin, M. R., Vacca, W. D., Hibbard, J. E., Somerville, R. S. & Windhorst, R., Aug 20 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 629, 2 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

dwarf galaxies
assembling
Hubble Space Telescope
void
voids
20 Citations (Scopus)

Intergalactic stellar distributions in the interacting M81/M82 galaxy group

Sun, W. H., Zhou, X., Chen, W. P., Burstein, D., Windhorst, R., Ma, J., Bvun, Y. I., Jiang, Z. J. & Chen, J. S., Sep 10 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 630, 2 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galactic clusters
galaxies
encounters
hydrogen clouds
stellar radiation
565 Citations (Scopus)

Passively evolving early-type galaxies at 1.4 ≲ z ≲ 2.5 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Daddi, E., Renzini, A., Pirzkal, N., Cimatti, A., Malhotra, S., Stiavelli, M., Xu, C., Pasquali, A., Rhoads, J. E., Brusa, M., Di Serego Alighieri, S., Ferguson, H. C., Koekemoer, A. M., Moustakas, L. A., Panagia, N. & Windhorst, R., Jun 20 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 626, 2 I, p. 680-697 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
spectral energy distribution
Hubble Space Telescope
energy
space density
44 Citations (Scopus)

Stars in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Pirzkal, N., Sahu, K. C., Burgasser, A., Moustakas, L. A., Xu, C., Malhotra, S., Rhoads, J. E., Koekemoer, A. M., Nelan, E. P., Windhorst, R., Panagia, N., Gronwall, C., Pasquali, A. & Walsh, J. R., Mar 20 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 622, 1 I, p. 319-332 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

stars
halos
signal-to-noise ratio
point source
dark matter
66 Citations (Scopus)

UBVR and hubble space telescope mid-ultraviolet and near-infrared surface photometry and radial color gradients of late-type, irregular, and peculiar galaxies

Taylor, V. A., Jansen, R. A., Windhorst, R., Odewahn, S. C. & Hibbard, J. E., Sep 10 2005, In : Astrophysical Journal. 630, 2 I, p. 784-803 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

peculiar galaxies
irregular galaxies
Hubble Space Telescope
photometry
near infrared
2004
106 Citations (Scopus)

Candidates of z ≃ 5.5-7 galaxies in the hubble space telescope ultra deep field

Yan, H. & Windhorst, R., Sep 10 2004, In : Astrophysical Journal. 612, 2 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hubble Space Telescope
galaxies
artifact
near infrared
spectrometer
7 Citations (Scopus)

Cosmological simulations of the high-redshift radio universe

Kawata, D., Gibson, B. K. & Windhorst, R., Oct 21 2004, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 354, 2, p. 387-392 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Very Large Array (VLA)
universe
radio
centimeter waves
simulation
16 Citations (Scopus)

Dome-diffuser flat-fielding for schmidt telescopes

Zhou, X., Burstein, D., Byun, Y. I., Chen, J. S., Chen, W. P., Jiang, Z. J., Ma, J., Sun, W. H., Windhorst, R., Wu, H., Wen, X. & Zhu, J., Jun 2004, In : Astronomical Journal. 127, 6 1782, p. 3642-3652 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schmidt telescopes
diffusers
domes
dome
charge coupled devices
146 Citations (Scopus)

Evidence for extended, obscured starbursts in submillimeter galaxies

Chapman, S. C., Smail, I., Windhorst, R., Muxlow, T. & Ivison, R. J., Aug 20 2004, In : Astrophysical Journal. 611, 2 I, p. 732-738 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

radio
galaxies
radio emission
Very Large Array (VLA)
Hubble Space Telescope
65 Citations (Scopus)

Further multiwavelength observations of the SSA 22 Lyα-emitting blob

Chapman, S. C., Scott, D., Windhorst, R., Frayer, D. T., Borys, C., Lewis, G. F. & Ivision, R. J., May 1 2004, In : Astrophysical Journal. 606, 1 I, p. 85-91 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

active galactic nuclei
radio
Hubble Space Telescope
continuums
Very Large Array (VLA)
81 Citations (Scopus)

GRAPES, grism spectroscopy of the Hubble ultra deep field: Description and data reduction

Pirzkal, N., Xu, C., Malhotra, S., Rhoads, J. E., Koekemoer, A. M., Moustakas, L. A., Walsh, J. R., Windhorst, R., Daddi, E., Cimatti, A., Ferguson, H. C., Gardner, J. P., Gronwall, C., Haiman, Z., Kümmel, M., Panagia, N., Pasquali, A., Stiavelli, M., Di Serego Alighieri, S., Tsvetanov, Z. & 2 others, Vernet, J. & Yan, H., Oct 2004, In : Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 154, 2, p. 501-508 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

data reduction
spectroscopy
Hubble Space Telescope
active galactic nuclei
cameras

Infrared Space Observatory observations of the 53W002 group at 6.7 microns: In search of the oldest stellar populations at z = 2.4

Keel, W. C., Wu, W., Van Der Werf, P. P., Windhorst, R., Dunlop, J. S., Eales, S. A., Waddington, I. & Holmes, M., Aug 2004, In : Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 116, 822, p. 712-722 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)
observatory
galaxies
active galactic nuclei
color
19 Citations (Scopus)
advanced technology
sky
brightness
telescopes
air masses
74 Citations (Scopus)

The major sources of the cosmic reionizing background at z ≃ 6

Yan, H. & Windhorst, R., Jan 1 2004, In : Astrophysical Journal. 600, 1 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

luminosity
galaxies
hydrogen
universe
time measurement
2003
51 Citations (Scopus)

15 colour photometry of the Landolt SA95 standard star field

Zhou, X., Jiang, Z., Ma, J., Xue, S., Wu, H., Chen, J., Zhu, J., Sun, W. & Windhorst, R., Jan 2003, In : Astronomy and Astrophysics. 397, 1, p. 361-369 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

star distribution
photometry
wavelength
color
stars

Erratum: The microjansky sky at 8.4 GHz (The Astronmical Journal (2002) 123 (2402))

Fomalont, E. B., Kellermann, K. I., Partridge, R. B., Windhorst, R. & Richards, E. A., May 2003, In : Astronomical Journal. 125, 5 1769, p. 2751 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

sky
84 Citations (Scopus)

Evidence for a major merger origin of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies

Conselice, C. J., Chapman, S. C. & Windhorst, R., Oct 10 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 596, 1 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

merger
galaxies
dust
stellar mass
asymmetry
94 Citations (Scopus)

Hubble Space Telescope Images of submillimeter sources: Large irregular galaxies at high redshift

Chapman, S. C., Windhorst, R., Odewahn, S., Yan, H. & Conselice, C., Dec 10 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 599, 1 I, p. 92-104 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

irregular galaxies
Hubble Space Telescope
galaxies
merger
interferometry
10 Citations (Scopus)

Hα + [N II] observations of the H II regions in M81

Lin, W., Zhou, X., Burstein, D., Windhorst, R., Chen, J., Chen, W. P., Jiang, Z., Kong, X., Ma, J., Sun, W. H., Wu, H., Xue, S. & Zhu, J., Sep 2003, In : Astronomical Journal. 126, 3 1773, p. 1286-1294 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

H II regions
charge coupled devices
astronomical observatories
continuums
China
196 Citations (Scopus)

Photometry and spectroscopy of GRB 030329 and its associated supernova 2003dh: The first two months

Matheson, T., Garnavich, P. M., Stanek, K. Z., Bersier, D., Holland, S. T., Krisciunas, K., Caldwell, N., Berlind, P., Bloom, J. S., Bolte, M., Bonanos, A. Z., Brown, M. J. I., Brown, W. R., Calkins, M. L., Challis, P., Chornock, R., Echevarria, L., Eisenstein, D. J., Everett, M. E., Filippenko, A. V. & 39 others, Flint, K., Foley, R. J., Freedman, D. L., Hamuy, M., Harding, P., Hathi, N. P., Hicken, M., Hoopes, C., Impey, C., Jannuzi, B. T., Jansen, R. A., Jha, S., Kaluzny, J., Kannappan, S., Kirshner, R. P., Latham, D. W., Lee, J. C., Leonard, D. C., Li, W., Luhman, K. L., Martini, P., Mathis, H., Maza, J., Megeath, S. T., Miller, L. R., Minniti, D., Olszewski, E. W., Papenkova, M., Phillips, M. M., Pindor, B., Sasselov, D. D., Schild, R., Schweiker, H., Spahr, T., Thomas-Osip, J., Thompson, I., Weisz, D., Windhorst, R. & Zaritsky, D., Dec 10 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 599, 1 I, p. 394-407 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

gamma ray bursts
photometry
supernovae
spectroscopy
afterglows
33 Citations (Scopus)
Hubble Space Telescope
cameras
signal-to-noise ratio
contamination
galaxies
917 Citations (Scopus)

Spectroscopic discovery of the supernova 2003dh associated with GRB 030329

Stanek, K. Z., Matheson, T., Garnavich, P. M., Martini, P., Berlind, P., Caldwell, N., Challis, P., Brown, W. R., Schild, R., Krisciunas, K., Calkins, M. L., Lee, J. C., Hathi, N., Jansen, R. A., Windhorst, R., Echevarria, L., Eisenstein, D. J., Pindor, B., Olszewski, E. W., Harding, P. & 2 others, Holland, S. T. & Bersier, D., Jul 1 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 591, 1 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

supernovae
afterglows
gamma ray bursts
bursts
H II regions
67 Citations (Scopus)

Star cluster formation and evolution in nearby starburst galaxies - I. Systematic uncertainties

De Grijs, R., Fritze-v Alvensleben, U., Anders, P., Gallagher, J. S., Bastian, N., Taylor, V. A. & Windhorst, R., Jun 11 2003, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 342, 1, p. 259-273 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

starburst galaxies
star clusters
metallicity
spectral energy distribution
age structure
15 Citations (Scopus)

The Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 B-Band Parallel Survey: A study of galaxy morphology for magnitudes 18 ≤ b ≤ 27

Cohen, S. H., Windhorst, R., Odewahn, S. C., Chiarenza, C. A. & Driver, S. P., Apr 2003, In : Astronomical Journal. 125, 4 1768, p. 1762-1783 22 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hubble Space Telescope
galaxies
artificial neural network
signal-to-noise ratio
merger
10 Citations (Scopus)

The infrared counterparts of the optically unidentified Chandra Deep field-south 1 Ms sources

Yan, H., Windhorst, R., Röttgering, H. J. A., Cohen, S. H., Odewahn, S. C., Chapman, S. C. & Keel, W. C., Mar 1 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 585, 1 I, p. 67-72 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

extinction
active galactic nuclei
telescopes
galaxies
European Southern Observatory
23 Citations (Scopus)

The microJansky and nanoJansky population

Windhorst, R., Sep 2003, In : New Astronomy Reviews. 47, 4-5, p. 357-365 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

radio
flux density
time measurement
microwave emission
starburst galaxies
16 Citations (Scopus)

The morphological decomposition of Abell 868

Driver, S. P., Odewahn, S. C., Echevarria, L., Cohen, S. H., Windhorst, R., Phillipps, S. & Couch, W. J., Dec 2003, In : Astronomical Journal. 126, 6 1776, p. 2662-2676 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

decomposition
elliptical galaxies
luminosity
galaxies
error analysis
16 Citations (Scopus)

Ultraviolet-optical pixel maps of face-on spiral galaxies: Clues for dynamics and star formation histories

Eskridge, P. B., Frogel, J. A., Taylor, V. A., Windhorst, R., Odewahn, S. C., Chiarenza, C. A. T. C., Conselice, C. J., De Grijs, R., Matthews, L. D., O'Connell, R. W. & Gallagher, J. S., Apr 1 2003, In : Astrophysical Journal. 586, 2 I, p. 923-938 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

spiral galaxies
star formation
pixel
pixels
histories
2002
15 Citations (Scopus)

Active nuclei and star-forming objects at z > 2: Metallicities, winds, and formation histories

Keel, W. C., Wu, W., Waddington, I., Windhorst, R. & Pascarelle, S. M., Jun 2002, In : Astronomical Journal. 123, 6 1758, p. 3041-3054 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

metallicity
histories
stars
nuclei
history
78 Citations (Scopus)

A hubble space telescope survey of the mid-ultraviolet morphology of nearby galaxies

Windhorst, R., Taylor, V. A., Jansen, R. A., Odewahn, S. C., Chiarenza, C. A. T., Conselice, C. J., De Grijs, R., De Jong, R. S., Mackenty, J. W., Eskridge, P. B., Frogel, J. A., Gallagher, J. S., Hibbard, J. E., Matthews, L. D. & O'Connell, R. W., Nov 2002, In : Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 143, 1, p. 113-158 46 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hubble Space Telescope
galaxies
filter
dust
young population
11 Citations (Scopus)

A simple prediction of the surface density of galaxies at z ≃ 6

Yan, H., Windhorst, R., Odewahn, S. C., Cohen, S. H., Röttgering, H. J. A. & Keel, W. C., Dec 1 2002, In : Astrophysical Journal. 580, 2 I, p. 725-731 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
prediction
predictions
sky
confidence
42 Citations (Scopus)

Automated galaxy morphology: A Fourier approach

Odewahn, S. C., Cohen, S. H., Windhorst, R. & Philip, N. S., Apr 1 2002, In : Astrophysical Journal. 568, 2 I, p. 539-557 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
artificial neural network
signal-to-noise ratio
train
principal component analysis

HST imaging of an old galaxy group at Z = 1.55

Bunker, A. J., Spinrad, H., McLure, R., Dey, A., Dunlop, J., Peacock, J., Stern, D., Thompson, R., Waddington, I. & Windhorst, R., 2002, In : Astrophysics and Space Science. 281, 1-2, p. 527-528 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galactic clusters
53 Citations (Scopus)

Intermediate-band surface photometry of the edge-on galaxy NGC 4565

Wu, H., Burstein, D., Deng, Z., Zhou, X., Shang, Z., Zheng, Z., Chen, J., Su, H., Windhorst, R., Chen, W. P., Zou, Z., Xia, X., Jiang, Z., Ma, J., Xue, S., Zhu, J., Cheng, F., Byun, Y. I., Chen, R., Deng, L. & 12 others, Fan, X., Fang, L. Z., Kong, X., Li, Y., Lin, W., Lu, P., Sun, W. H., Tsay, W. S., Xu, W., Yan, H., Zhao, B. & Zheng, Z., Mar 2002, In : Astronomical Journal. 123, 3 1755, p. 1364-1380 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

photometry
galaxies
power law
halos
brightness
16 Citations (Scopus)

Old elliptical galaxies at z ≃ 1.5 and the Kormendy relation

Waddington, I., Windhorst, R., Cohen, S. H., Dunlop, J. S., Peacock, J. A., Jimenez, R., McLure, R. J., Bunker, A. J., Spinrad, H., Dey, A. & Stern, D., Nov 11 2002, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 336, 4, p. 1342-1350 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

elliptical galaxies
radio
galaxies
radio galaxies
radii
63 Citations (Scopus)

The microjansky sky at 8.4 GHz

Fomalont, E. B., Kellermann, K. I., Partridge, R. B., Windhorst, R. & Richards, E. A., May 2002, In : Astronomical Journal. 123, 5 1757, p. 2402-2416 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

sky
radio
flux density
galaxies
Very Large Array (VLA)
19 Citations (Scopus)

Westphal-MMD 11: An interacting, submillimeter luminous Lyman break galaxy

Chapman, S. C., Shapley, A., Steidel, C. & Windhorst, R., Jun 10 2002, In : Astrophysical Journal. 572, 1 II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
merger
luminosity
Hubble Space Telescope
active galactic nuclei
112 Citations (Scopus)

X-ray properties of Lyman break galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field-North region

Nandra, K., Mushotzky, R. F., Arnaud, K., Steidel, C. C., Adelberger, K. L., Gardner, J. P., Teplitz, H. I. & Windhorst, R., Sep 10 2002, In : Astrophysical Journal. 576, 2 I, p. 625-639 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
luminosity
x rays
star formation rate
erg
2001
16 Citations (Scopus)

The Kuiper Belt and Olbers's paradox

Kenyon, S. J. & Windhorst, R., Jan 20 2001, In : Astrophysical Journal. 547, 1 PART 2

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kuiper belt
paradoxes
solar system
brightness
night sky
60 Citations (Scopus)

The LBDS Hercules sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz - II. Redshift distribution, radio luminosity function, and the high-redshift cut-off

Waddington, I., Dunlop, J. S., Peacock, J. A. & Windhorst, R., Dec 11 2001, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 328, 3, p. 882-896 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

cut-off
luminosity
radio
broadband
distribution
2000
55 Citations (Scopus)

Calibration of the BATC survey: Methodology and accuracy

Yan, H., Burstein, D., Fan, X., Zheng, Z., Chen, J., Byun, Y. I., Chen, R., Chen, W. P., Deng, L., Deng, Z., Fang, L. Z., Hester, J. J., Jiang, Z., Li, Y., Lin, W., Lu, P., Shang, Z., Su, H., Sun, W. H., Tsay, W. S. & 8 others, Windhorst, R., Wu, H., Xia, X., Xu, W., Xue, S., Zheng, Z., Zhu, J. & Zou, Z., May 2000, In : Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 112, 771, p. 691-702 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

extinction
methodology
filter
calibration
filters
165 Citations (Scopus)

Faint radio sources and star formation history

Haarsma, D. B., Partridge, R. B., Windhorst, R. & Richards, E. A., Dec 1 2000, In : Astrophysical Journal. 544, 2 PART 1, p. 641-658 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

star formation rate
star formation
histories
radio
luminosity
9 Citations (Scopus)

Morphological number counts and redshift distributions to I = 25 from the hubble deep fields: Constraints on cosmological models from early-type galaxies

Phillipps, S., Driver, S. P., Couch, W. J., Fernandez-Soto, A., Bristow, P. D., Odewahn, S. C., Windhorst, R. & Lanzetta, K., Dec 11 2000, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 319, 3, p. 807-812 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

galaxies
transmutation
conservation
universe
distribution
57 Citations (Scopus)

Spatially resolved spectrophotometry of M81: Age, metallicity, and reddening maps

Kong, X., Zhou, X., Chen, J., Cheng, F., Jiang, Z., Zhu, J., Zheng, Z., Mao, S., Shang, Z., Fan, X., Byun, Y. I., Chen, R., Chen, W. P., Deng, L., Hester, J. J., Li, Y., Lin, W., Su, H., Sun, W. H., Tsay, W. S. & 8 others, Windhorst, R., Wu, H., Xia, X., Xu, W., Xue, S., Yan, H., Zheng, Z. & Zou, Z., Jun 2000, In : Astronomical Journal. 119, 6, p. 2745-2756 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

spectrophotometry
metallicity
Schmidt telescopes
galaxies
color
23 Citations (Scopus)

The LBDS Hercules sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz - I. Multicolour photometry

Waddington, I., Windhorst, R., Dunlop, J. S., Koo, D. C. & Peacock, J. A., Oct 1 2000, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 317, 4, p. 801-824 24 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

extremely high frequencies
photometry
radio
flux density
radio galaxies
27 Citations (Scopus)

What will the next generation radio telescope detect at 1.4 GHZ?

Hopkins, A., Windhorst, R., Cram, L. & Ekers, R., 2000, In : Experimental Astronomy. 10, 4, p. 419-437 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

radio telescopes
flux density
radio
extragalactic radio sources
confusion
1999
28 Citations (Scopus)

A cluster or filament of galaxies at redshift z = 2.5?

Campos, A., Yahil, A., Windhorst, R., Richards, E. A., Pascarelle, S., Impey, C. & Petry, C., Jan 20 1999, In : Astrophysical Journal. 511, 1 PART 2

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

quasars
filaments
galaxies
radio
wavelength