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Research Output 1985 2019

  • 4166 Citations
  • 29 h-Index
  • 74 Conference contribution
  • 45 Article
  • 1 Chapter
2019

Effect of InAs quantum dots capped with GaAs on atomic-scale ordering in Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P

Su, P. Y., Liu, H., Kawabata, R. M. S., Weiner, E. C., Jakomin, R., Pires, M. P., King, R., Souza, P. L. & Ponce, F., Feb 7 2019, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 125, 5, 053104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

quantum dots
indium
cathodoluminescence
vapor phase epitaxy
insertion

Evaluating the performance of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells operated at elevated temperatures via DC and small-signal AC analysis

Vadiee, E., Fischer, A. M., Clinton, E. A., McFavilen, H., Patadia, A., Arena, C., Ponce, F. A., King, R. R., Honsberg, C. B. & Doolittle, W. A., Jan 1 2019, In : Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 58, 10, 101003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Semiconductor quantum wells
alternating current
Solar cells
solar cells
direct current
2018

1-eV GaNAsSb for multijunction solar cells

Maros, A., Faleev, N., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. S., Honsberg, C. & King, R., May 25 2018, 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1-4 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoluminescence
Chemical analysis
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Molecular beam epitaxy
Electronic properties
2 Citations (Scopus)

A Lattice-Matched GaNP/Si Three-Terminal Tandem Solar Cell

Zou, Y., Zhang, C., Honsberg, C., Vasileska, D., King, R. & Goodnick, S., Nov 26 2018, 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 279-282 4 p. 8548033

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Sun
Absorption spectra
Lighting
Simulators
5 Citations (Scopus)

Carrier-selective contact GaP/Si solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Zhang, C., Vadiee, E., King, R. & Honsberg, C., Feb 28 2018, In : Journal of Materials Research. 33, 4, p. 414-423 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gallium phosphide
gallium phosphides
Molecular beam epitaxy
Solar cells
molecular beam epitaxy

Comprehensive Library of Photovoltaic Functions on Python for Academic and Educational Purposes

Reguera, P., Bowden, S., King, R., Babcock, S., Shaw, A. & Honsberg, C., Nov 26 2018, 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 3185-3186 2 p. 8547732

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar energy

Developing high performance GaP/Si heterojunction solar cells

Zhang, C., Vadiee, E., Dahal, S., King, R. & Honsberg, C., Nov 1 2018, In : Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2018, 141, e58292.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heterojunctions
Solar cells
Carrier lifetime
Equipment and Supplies
Crystals

Growth of GaAs on Polycrystalline Germanium Substrates Prepared via Aluminum-Induced Crystallization

McClure, E. L., Polly, S. J., Chikhalkar, A., King, R. & Hubbard, S. M., Nov 26 2018, 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 224-228 5 p. 8547654

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Germanium
Crystallization
Aluminum
Substrates
Heterojunctions

Hetero-emitter GaP/Si solar cells with high Si bulk lifetime

Zhang, C., Faleev, N. N., Ding, L., Boccard, M., Bertoni, M., Holman, Z., King, R. & Honsberg, C., May 25 2018, 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1-4 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier lifetime
Solar cells
Silicon
Silicon solar cells
Open circuit voltage
5 Citations (Scopus)

InGaN solar cells with regrown GaN homojunction tunnel contacts

Vadiee, E., Clinton, E. A., McFavilen, H., Weidenbach, A. S., Engel, Z., Matthews, C., Zhang, C., Arena, C., King, R., Honsberg, C. & Doolittle, W. A., Aug 1 2018, In : Applied Physics Express. 11, 8, 082304.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

homojunctions
Tunnel junctions
tunnel junctions
tunnels
Solar cells

Low Concentrated Photovoltaics for III-V Solar Cells

Zhang, C., Armour, E., King, R. & Honsberg, C., Nov 26 2018, 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 975-979 5 p. 8548200

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Cost reduction
Costs
Electricity
Substrates

Passivation of polycrystalline Ga0.37In0.63P - An emerging 1.7eV bandgap top cell candidate

Chikhalkar, A., Zhang, C., Faleev, N., Honsberg, C. & King, R., Nov 26 2018, 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 196-200 5 p. 8547733

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Passivation
Photoluminescence
Grain boundaries
Energy gap
Annealing
2017
14 Citations (Scopus)
solar cells
electric potential
radiative recombination
gallium phosphides
indium phosphides
2 Citations (Scopus)

Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

Haegel, N. M., Ke, C. W., Taha, H., Guthrey, H., Fetzer, C. M. & King, R., Jan 1 2017, In : IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 7, 1, p. 354-358 5 p., 7762750.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathodoluminescence
solar cells
cathodoluminescence
Imaging techniques
point sources
2016
3 Citations (Scopus)

1-eV GaNAsSb for multijunction solar cells

Maros, A., Faleev, N., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. S., Honsberg, C. & King, R., Nov 18 2016, 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Vol. 2016-November. p. 2306-2309 4 p. 7750048

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoluminescence
Chemical analysis
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Molecular beam epitaxy
Electronic properties
3 Citations (Scopus)

Carrier localization effects in GaAs1−xSbx/GaAs heterostructures

Maros, A., Faleev, N. N., Bertoni, M., Honsberg, C. & King, R., Nov 14 2016, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 120, 18, 183104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

photoluminescence
structural analysis
temperature
molecular beam epitaxy
excitons
7 Citations (Scopus)

Critical thickness investigation of MBE-grown GaInAs/GaAs and GaAsSb/GaAs heterostructures

Maros, A., Faleev, N., King, R., Honsberg, C., Convey, D., Xie, H. & Ponce, F., Mar 1 2016, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics. 34, 2, 02L113.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Molecular beam epitaxy
Heterojunctions
Strain relaxation
X rays
Epitaxial films
11 Citations (Scopus)
Heterojunctions
solar cells
Semiconductor quantum wells
Photoluminescence
quantum wells
10 Citations (Scopus)

Hetero-emitter GaP/Si solar cells with high Si bulk lifetime

Zhang, C., Faleev, N. N., Ding, L., Boccard, M., Bertoni, M., Holman, Z., King, R. & Honsberg, C., Nov 18 2016, 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Vol. 2016-November. p. 1950-1953 4 p. 7749966

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier lifetime
Solar cells
Silicon
Silicon solar cells
Open circuit voltage
23 Citations (Scopus)

Metamorphic epitaxy for multijunction solar cells

France, R. M., Dimroth, F., Grassman, T. J. & King, R., Mar 1 2016, In : MRS Bulletin. 41, 3, p. 202-209 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Epitaxial growth
epitaxy
solar cells
Semiconductor materials
solar spectra
23 Citations (Scopus)

Optically enhanced photon recycling in mechanically stacked multijunction solar cells

Steiner, M. A., Geisz, J. F., Ward, J. S., Garcia, I., Friedman, D. J., King, R., Chiu, P. T., France, R. M., Duda, A., Olavarria, W. J., Young, M. & Kurtz, S. R., Jan 1 2016, In : IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 6, 1, p. 358-365 8 p., 7322173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

recycling
Recycling
Photons
solar cells
Electroluminescence
2015
50 Citations (Scopus)

40% efficient sunlight to electricity conversion

Green, M. A., Keevers, M. J., Thomas, I., Lasich, J. B., Emery, K. & King, R., Jun 1 2015, In : Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. 23, 6, p. 685-691 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

sunlight
electricity
Towers
Electricity
towers
1 Citation (Scopus)

Cross-sectional transport imaging in a multijunction solar cell

Haegel, N. M., Ke, C. W., Taha, H., Guthrey, H., Fetzer, C. M. & King, R., Dec 14 2015, 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7356200

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Imaging techniques
Cathodoluminescence
Carrier transport
Fermi level
Electron beams

Mechanically stacked four-junction concentrator solar cells

Steiner, M. A., Geisz, J. F., Ward, J. S., Garcia, I., Friedman, D. J., King, R., Chiu, P. T., France, R. M., Duda, A., Olavarria, W. J., Young, M. & Kurtz, S. R., Dec 14 2015, 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7356151

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sun
Solar cells
Electroluminescence
Substrates
Lattice constants
2014
64 Citations (Scopus)

35.8% space and 38.8% terrestrial 5J direct bonded cells

Chiu, P. T., Law, D. C., Woo, R. L., Singer, S. B., Bhusari, D., Hong, W. D., Zakaria, A., Boisvert, J., Mesropian, S., King, R. & Karam, N. H., Oct 15 2014, 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2014. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 11-13 3 p. 6924957

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sun
Solar cells
Semiconductor materials
Electric potential
Experiments

Chairmans Message

King, R., Oct 15 2014, In : Unknown Journal. 6925691.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Direct semiconductor bonded 5J cell for space and terrestrial applications

Chiu, P. T., Law, D. C., Woo, R. L., Singer, S. B., Bhusari, D., Hong, W. D., Zakaria, A., Boisvert, J., Mesropian, S., King, R. & Karam, N. H., Jan 2014, In : IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 4, 1, p. 493-497 5 p., 6595564.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sun
Semiconductor materials
sun
cells
Vapor phase epitaxy
2013

Conceptual product development with integrated concentrating PV systems - CPV in the built environment from a designer's perspective

Reinders, A., Wiesenfarth, M. & King, R., 2013, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 474-479 6 p. 6744193

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Product development
Product design
Conceptual design
Roofs
Students
15 Citations (Scopus)

Editorial: Toward 100 gigawatts of concentrator photovoltaics by 2030

Friedman, D. J., King, R., Swanson, R. M., McJannet, J. & Gwinner, D., 2013, In : IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 3, 4, p. 1460-1463 4 p., 6553423.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

concentrators
recommendations
Industry
commercialization
installing
6 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of in situ annealing on GaInNAs solar cells

Kurtz, S., King, R., Law, D., Ptak, A., Geisz, J. & Karam, N., 2013, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2095-2099 5 p. 6744887

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Annealing
Organic chemicals
Chemical vapor deposition
Metals
13 Citations (Scopus)

High efficiency Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells

Boisvert, J., Law, D., King, R., Rehder, E., Chiu, P., Bhusari, D., Fetzer, C., Liu, X., Hong, W., Mesropian, S., Woo, R., Edmondson, K., Cotal, H., Krut, D., Singer, S., Wierman, S. & Karam, N. H., 2013, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2790-2792 3 p. 6745051

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Thermal cycling
Solar cells
Degradation
Electron irradiation
Space applications
1 Citation (Scopus)

Recent progress of spectrolab high-efficiency space solar cells

Law, D. C., Boisvert, J. C., Rehder, E. M., Chiu, P. T., Mesropian, S., Woo, R. L., Liu, X. Q., Hong, W. D., Fetzer, C. M., Singer, S. B., Bhusari, D. M., Edmondson, K. M., Zakaria, A., Jun, B., Krut, D. D., King, R., Sharma, S. K. & Karam, N. H., 2013, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8876. 88760Y

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar Cells
High Efficiency
Solar cells
solar cells
Sun
2012
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of energy production of Spectrolab multijunction solar cells in field conditions

Jones, R. K., King, R., Fetzer, C. M., Ermer, J. H., Edmondson, K. M. & Hebert, P., 2012, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 2065-2070 6 p. 6318005

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Optics
Optical systems
Silicones
Solar energy
Glass
7 Citations (Scopus)

Comparison of arsenide and phosphide based graded buffer layers used in inverted metamorphic solar cells

Zakaria, A., King, R., Jackson, M. & Goorsky, M. S., Jul 15 2012, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 112, 2, 024907.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

phosphides
buffers
solar cells
cells
defects
17 Citations (Scopus)

Evolution of multijunction solar cell technology for concentrating photovoltaics

Jones, R. K., Ermer, J. H., Fetzer, C. M. & King, R., Oct 2012, In : Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 51, 10 PART 2, 10ND01.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

concentrating
solar cells
cells
Photovoltaic cells
photovoltaic cells
5 Citations (Scopus)

Group-IV subcells in multijunction concentrator solar cells

King, R., Fetzer, C., Chiu, P., Rehder, E., Edmondson, K. & Karam, N., 2012, ECS Transactions. 9 ed. Vol. 50. p. 287-295 9 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Nitrides
Conversion efficiency
Substrates

Large area plan-view transmission electron microscopy sample preparation for multijunction metamorphic solar cell devices

Jackson, M. J., Jackson, B. L., Bodzin, N., Zakaira, A., Liu, X. Q., King, R. & Goorsky, M. S., 2012, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 1620-1623 4 p. 6317906

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Defect density
Solar cells
Focused ion beams
Transmission electron microscopy
Electrons
9 Citations (Scopus)

Organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth of upright metamorphic multijunction solar cells

Liu, X. Q., Fetzer, C. M., Rehder, E., Cotal, H., Mesropian, S., Law, D. & King, R., Aug 1 2012, In : Journal of Crystal Growth. 352, 1, p. 186-189 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vapor phase epitaxy
Organometallics
Quantum efficiency
vapor phase epitaxy
Lattice constants
14 Citations (Scopus)

Recent progress of Spectrolab high-efficiency space solar cells

Law, D. C., Liu, X. Q., Boisvert, J. C., Redher, E. M., Fetzer, C. M., Mesropian, S., King, R., Edmondson, K. M., Jun, B., Woo, R. L., Krut, D. D., Chiu, P. T., Bhusari, D. M., Sharma, S. K. & Karam, N. H., 2012, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 3146-3149 4 p. 6318246

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sun
Solar cells
Current density
Open circuit voltage
Short circuit currents
37 Citations (Scopus)

Reduction of crosshatch roughness and threading dislocation density in metamorphic GaInP buffers and GaInAs solar cells

France, R. M., Geisz, J. F., Steiner, M. A., To, B., Romero, M. J., Olavarria, W. J. & King, R., May 15 2012, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 111, 10, 103528.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

roughness
buffers
solar cells
surface roughness
short circuit currents
183 Citations (Scopus)

Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency

King, R., Bhusari, D., Larrabee, D., Liu, X. Q., Rehder, E., Edmondson, K., Cotal, H., Jones, R. K., Ermer, J. H., Fetzer, C. M., Law, D. C. & Karam, N. H., Sep 2012, In : Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. 20, 6, p. 801-815 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Solar cells
solar cells
concentrators
cells
Power generation
41 Citations (Scopus)

Status of C3MJ+ and C4MJ production concentrator solar cells at spectrolab

Ermer, J. H., Jones, R. K., Hebert, P., Pien, P., King, R., Bhusari, D., Brandt, R., Al-Taher, O., Fetzer, C., Kinsey, G. S. & Karam, N., 2012, In : IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 2, 2, p. 209-213 5 p., 6132397.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

concentrators
Solar cells
solar cells
installing
cells
2011
160 Citations (Scopus)

Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells

King, R., Bhusari, D., Boca, A., Larrabee, D., Liu, X. Q., Hong, W., Fetzer, C. M., Law, D. C. & Karam, N. H., Nov 2011, In : Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. 19, 7, p. 797-812 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Energy gap
solar cells
Photovoltaic cells
concentrators
Electric potential
3 Citations (Scopus)

Development of space solar cells at Spectrolab

Boisvert, J., Law, D., King, R., Bhusari, D., Liu, X., Mesropian, S., Larrabee, D., Woo, R., Edmondson, K., Krut, D., Peterson, D., Rouhani, K., Benedikt, B. & Karam, N., 2011, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 1528-1531 4 p. 6186250

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Bias currents
Space applications
Quantum efficiency
Thermal stress
1 Citation (Scopus)

Initial on-orbit performance analysis of Inverted Metamorphic (IMM3J) solar cells on MISSE-7

Edmondson, K. M., Howard, A., Hausgen, P., Jenkins, P., Bhusari, D., Wierman, S., Mesropian, S., Law, D. C., Bardfield, R., King, R. & Karam, N. H., 2011, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 3719-3723 5 p. 6185958

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solar cells
Orbits
Reflective coatings
Mechanical stability
Space stations

Wafer processing aspects of high efficiency multi-junction solar cells

Bhusari, D., Ly, A., Serra, J., Crouch, A., Diamond, S., Lee, H., Lau, M. & King, R., 2011, AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1407. p. 38-41 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

solar cells
wafers
cells
fabrication
concentrators
2010
23 Citations (Scopus)

Development of advanced space solar cells at Spectrolab

Boisvert, J., Law, D., King, R., Bhusari, D., Liu, X., Zakaria, A., Hong, W., Mesropian, S., Larrabee, D., Woo, R., Boca, A., Edmondson, K., Krut, D., Peterson, D., Rouhani, K., Benedikt, B. & Karam, N. H., 2010, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 123-127 5 p. 5614522

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Space applications
Thermal cycling
Sun
Solar cells
Semiconductor materials
136 Citations (Scopus)

Future technology pathways of terrestrial III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic systems

Law, D. C., King, R., Yoon, H., Archer, M. J., Boca, A., Fetzer, C. M., Mesropian, S., Isshiki, T., Haddad, M., Edmondson, K. M., Bhusari, D., Yen, J., Sherif, R. A., Atwater, H. A. & Karam, N. H., Aug 2010, In : Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 94, 8, p. 1314-1318 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wafer bonding
Epitaxial layers
Crystallization
Energy conversion
Crystal growth
8 Citations (Scopus)

Status of 40% production efficiency concentrator cells at spectrolab

Jones, R. K., Hebert, P., Pien, P., King, R., Bhusari, D., Brandt, R., AlTaher, O., Fetzer, C., Ermer, J., Boca, A., Larrabee, D., Liu, X. Q. & Karam, N., 2010, Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 189-195 7 p. 5614535

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cost reduction
Solar energy
Solar cells
Costs
III-V semiconductors
2009
30 Citations (Scopus)

Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP

Haegel, N. M., Mills, T. J., Talmadge, M., Scandrett, C., Frenzen, C. L., Yoon, H., Fetzer, C. M. & King, R., 2009, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 105, 2, 023711.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

minority carriers
minorities
diffusion length
carrier mobility
optical microscopes