Supplementary material from "New Middle Miocene Ape (primates: Hylobatidae) from Ramnagar, India fills major gaps in the hominoid fossil record"

  • Christopher C. Gilbert (Contributor)
  • John G. Fleagle (Contributor)
  • Rajeev Patnaik (Contributor)
  • Alejandra Ortiz (Contributor)
  • Kelsey D. Pugh (Contributor)
  • Ningthoujam Premjit Singh (Contributor)
  • Christopher Campisano (Contributor)
  • Biren A. Patel (Contributor)



The fossil record of ‘lesser apes’ (i.e. hylobatids = gibbons and siamangs) is virtually non-existent before the latest Miocene of East Asia. However, molecular data strongly and consistently suggest that hylobatids should be present by approximately 20 Ma; thus, there are large temporal, geographical and morphological gaps between early fossil apes in Africa and the earliest fossil hylobatids in China. Here we describe a new approximately 12.5–13.8 Ma fossil ape from the Lower Siwaliks of Ramnagar, India, that fills in these long-standing gaps with implications for hylobatid origins. This ape represents the first new hominoid species discovered at Ramnagar in nearly a century, the first new Siwalik ape taxon in more than 30 years, and likely extends the hylobatid fossil record by approximately 5 Myr, providing a minimum age for hylobatid dispersal coeval to that of great apes. The presence of crown hylobatid molar features in the new species indicates an adaptive shift to a more frugivorous diet during the Middle Miocene, consistent with other proposed adaptations to frugivory (e.g. uricase gene silencing) during this time period as well.
Date made availableJan 1 2020
Publisherfigshare Academic Research System

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